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BU I, LET I N 



OF THE 



BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB. 






D £1 



EDITED BY 
CAPT. C. H. B; GRANT 



VOLUME LVII. 
SESSION 1936-1937. 



LONDON; 
H. F. & G. WITHERBY, 326 HIGH HOLBORN, W.C. 2 



1937. 



FLAMMA.M. 




PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCES, LTD. 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



PREFACE, 



The number of attendances during the past Session was : — 
373 members, 29 members of the B 0. U., and 146 guests — 
a total of 548. 

Mr. G. M. Mathews, Chairman of the Club, gave his annual 
address at the November Meeting, dealing with general 
matters, and a Regional Review from October 1935 to October 
1936. 

Among the many interesting communications and exhibits 
given during the Session were — Mr. G. L. Bates's interesting 
notes on birds collected in Arabia by Mr. Philby ; Mr. P. F. 
Bunyard's exhibition of eggs from Alberta ; Dr. James P. 
Chapin's exhibition of the types of the Congo Peafowl ; 
Mr. J. Delacour's visit to North America ; Mr. H. A. Gilbert's 
remarks on British Duck decoys ; the Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain 
on the Carrion- and Hooded Crows ; Mr. N. B. Kinnear on 
type-specimens of British birds ; Mr. R. D. Macdonald 
on the occurrence of the Levant Sparrow-Hawk in the Sudan ; 
Mr. A. J. Marshall's trip to New Guinea ; and Mr. G. Waterston 
on the occurrence of the Booted Warbler in the British Isles. 

Films and slides were shown by — Mr. A. Buxton, films of 
Pochard, Water-Rail, and Sparrow-Hawk ; Mr. J. G. 
Mavrogordato, film of a tame Goshawk ; Mr. A. S. Phillips, 
film of breeding birds at their nests ; Mr. 0. G. Pike, film 
of Fame Island birds ; Dr. Finn Salomonsen, film of Green- 
land ; Dr. D. A. Bannerman, slides of Marocco ; Mr. F. J. F. 
Barrington, slides of Tunisia ; the Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain, 
slides of Marocco and western Algeria ; and Dr. W. Rowan, 
slides of the bird-life of Alberta and its " muskegs." 

a2 



IV 

New forms were described by — Dr. D. A. Bannerman, 
Mr. G. L. Bates, Mr. N. B. Kinnear, Mr. Rudyerd Boulton, 
Mr. P. A. Clancey, Mr. J. Delacour, Capt. C. H. B. Grant, 
the Marquess Hachisuka, Dr. J. M. Harrison, Mr. T. H. 
Harrisson, Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed, Mr. A. J. Marshall, 
Mr. G. M. Mathews, Dr. E. Mayr, Col. R. Meinertzhagen, 
Prof. O. Neumann, Mr. R. H. W. Pakenham, the Lord 
Rothschild, Dr. C. B. Ticehurst, Mr. J. Vincent, and 
Mr. C. M. N. White. 

The Club entertained as distinguished guests — Mr. A. J. 
Marshall, Dr. W. Rowan, and Dr. Finn Salom onsen. 

CLAUDE H. B. GRANT, 

Editor. 
London, July 1937. 



BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB 

(Founded October 5, 1892.) 



TITLE AND OBJECTS. 

The objects of the Club, which shall be called the 
" British Ornithologists' Club," are the promotion of social 
intercourse between Members of the British Ornithologists' 
Union and to facilitate the publication of scientific infor- 
mation connected with ornithology. 

RULES, 

(As amended, October 9, 1935.) 

Management. 

I. The affairs of the Club shall be managed by a Committee, 
to consist of a Chairman, who shall be elected for three years, 
at the end of which period he shall not be eligible for re-election 
for the next term ; a Vice -Chairman, who shall serve for one 
year, and who shall not be eligible for the next year ; an Editor 
of the ' Bulletin,' who shall be elected for five years, at the end 
of which period he shall not be eligible for re-election for 
the next term ; a Secretary and a Treasurer, who shall each 
be elected for a term of one year, but who shall be eligible 
for re-election. There shall be in addition four other Members, 
the senior of whom shall retire each year, and another Member 
be elected in his place ; every third year the two senior 
Members shall retire and two other Members be elected in 
their place. Officers and Members of the Committee shall 
be elected by the Members of the Club at a General Meeting, 
and the names of such Officers and Members of Committee 
nominated by the Committee for the ensuing year shall be 
circulated with the notice convening the General Meeting 
at least two weeks before the Meeting. Should any Member 



VI 

wish to propose another candidate, the nomination of such, 
signed by at least two Members, must reach the Secretary 
at least one clear week before the Annual General Meeting. 

II. Any Member desiring to make a complaint of the 
manner in which the affairs of the Club are conducted 
must communicate in writing with the Chairman, who will, 
if he deem fit, call a Committee Meeting to deal with the 
matter. 

III. If the conduct of any Member shall be deemed by 
the Committee to be prejudicial to the interests of the Club, 
he may be requested by the Committee to withdraw from 
the Club. In the case of refusal, his name may be removed 
from the list of Members at a General Meeting, provided 
that, in the notice calling the Meeting, intimation of the 
proposed resolution to remove his name shall have been 
given, and that a majority of the Members voting at such 
Meeting record their votes for his removal. 

Subscriptions. 

IV. Any Member of the British Ornithologists' Union 
may become a Member of the Club on payment to the 
Treasurer of an entrance-fee of one pound and a subscription 
of one guinea for the current Session. On Membership 
of the Union ceasing, Membership of the Club also ceases. 

Any Member who has not paid his subscription before 
the last Meeting of the Session shall cease, ipso facto, to be 
a Member of the Club, but may be reinstated on payment 
of arrears. 

Any Member who has resigned less than five years ago 
may be reinstated without payment of another Entrance Fee. 

Any Member who resigns his Membership on going abroad 
may be readmitted without payment of a further Entrance 
Fee at the Committee's discretion. 

Meetings. 

V. The Club will meet, as a rule, on the second Wednesday 
in every month, from October to June inclusive, at such 
hour and place as may be arranged by the Committee, but 



vii 

should such Wednesday happen to be Ash Wednesday, the 
Meeting will take place on the Wednesday following. At 
these Meetings papers upon ornithological subjects will 
be read, specimens exhibited and described, and discussion 
invited. 

VI. A General Meeting of the Club shall be held on the 
day of the October Meeting of each Session, and the 
Treasurer shall present thereat the Balance-sheet and Report ; 
and the election of Officers and Committee, in so far as their 
election is required, shall be held at such Meeting. 

VII. A Special General Meeting may be called at the 
instance of the Committee for any purpose which they 
deem to be of sufficient importance, or at the instance of 
not fewer than fifteen Members. Notice of not less than 
two weeks shall be given of every General and Special General 
Meeting. 

Introduction of Visitors. 

VIII. Members may introduce visitors at any ordinary 
Meeting of the Club, but the same guest shall not be eligible 
to attend on more than three occasions during the Session. 
No former Member who has been removed for non-payment 
of subscription, or for any other cause, shall be allowed to 
attend as a guest. 

1 Bulletin ' of the Club. 

IX. An Abstract of the Proceedings of the Club shall be 
printed as soon as possible after each Meeting, under the 
title of the ' Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club,' 
and shall be distributed gratis to every Member who has 
paid his subscription. 

Contributors are entitled to six free copies of the ' Bulletin,' 
but if they desire to exercise this privilege they must give 
notice to the Editor when their manuscript is handed in. 
Members purchasing extra copies of the ' Bulletin ' are 
entitled to a rebate of 25 per cent, on the published price, 
but not more than two copies can be sold to any Member 
unless ordered before printing. 



VIII 

Descriptions of new species may be published in the 
' Bulletin,' although such were not communicated at the 
Meeting of the Club. This shall be done at the discretion 
of the Editor and so long as the publication of the ' Bulletin ' 
is not unduly delayed thereby. 

Any person speaking at a Meeting of the Club shall be 
allowed subsequently — subject to the discretion of the Editor — 
to amplify his remarks in the ' Bulletin,' but no fresh matter 
shall be incorporated with such remarks. 

X. No communication, the whole or any important part 
of which has already been published elsewhere, shall be 
eligible for publication in the ' Bulletin,' except at the discretion 
of the Editor ; and no communication made to the Club 
may be subsequently published elsewhere without the written 
sanction of the Editor. 

Alteration and Repeal of Rules. 

XI. Any suggested alteration or repeal of a standing rule 
shall be submitted to Members to be voted upon at a General 
Meeting convened for that purpose. 



COMMITTEE, 1936-1937. 

G. M. Mathews, Chairman. Elected 1935. 

D. Seth-Smith, Vice-Chairman. Elected 1936. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant, Editor. Elected 1935. 

Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson, Hon. Secretary. Elected 

1935. 
Major A. G. L. Sladen, Hon. Treasurer. Elected 1936. 
Col. A. E. Hamerton. Elected 1934. 
J. H. McNeile. Elected 1935. 
W. B. Alexander. Elected 1936. 
C. W. Mackworth-Praed. Elected 1936. 



Officers of the British Ornithologists' Club, 
Past and Present. 



Chairmen. 

P. L. Sclater, F.R.S. 1892-1913. 

Lord Rothschild, F.R.S. 1913-1918. 

W. L. Sclater. 1918-1924. 

H. F. Witherby. 1924-1927. 

Dr. P. R. Lowe. 1927-1930. 

Major S. S. Flower. 1930-1932. 

D. A. Bannerman. 1932-1935. 

G. M. Mathews. 1935- 

Vice- Chairmen. 

Lord Rothschild, F.R.S. 1930-1931. 

W. L. Sclater. 1931-1932. 

H. F. Witherby. 1932-1933. 

G. M. Mathews. 1933-1934. 

N. B. Kinnear. 1934-1935. 

H. Whistler. 1935-1936. 

D. Seth-Smith. 1936-1937. 

Editors. 

R. Bowdler Sharpe. 1892-1904. 

W. R. Ogilvie-Grant. 1904-1914. 

D. A. Bannerman. 1914-1915. 

D. Seth-Smith. 1915-1920. 

Dr. P. R. Lowe. 1920-1925. 

N. B. Kinnear. 1925-1930. 

Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 1930-1935. 

Captain C. H. B. Grant. 1935- 

Honorary Secretaries and Treasurers. 

Howard Saunders. 1892-1899. 

W. E. de Winton. 1899-1904. 

H. F. Witherby. 1904-1914. 

Dr. P. R. Lowe. 1914-1915. 

C. G. Talbot-Ponsonby. '1915-1918. 

D. A. Bannerman. 1918-1919. 
Dr. Philip Gosse. 1919-1920. 
J. L. Bonhote. 1920-1922. 
C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 1922-1923. 
Dr. G. Carmichael Low. 1923-1929. 
C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 1929-1935. 

Honorary Secretaries. 
Dr. A. Landsborotjgh 

Thomson. 1935- 

Honorary Treasurers. 

C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 1935-1936. 

Major A. G. L. Sladen. 1936- 



LIST OE MEMBERS. 
JUNE 1937. 



Acland, Miss C. M. ; Walwood, Banstead, Surrey. 

Alexander, H. G. ; 144 Oak Tree Lane, Selly Oak, Birming- 
ham. 

Alexander, W. B. (Committee) ; Dept. of Zoology, University 
Museum, Oxford. 

Aplin, Oliver Vernon ; Stonehill House, Bloxham, Banbury, 
Oxon. 
5 Alymer, Commdr. E. A., R.N. ; Wyke Oliver, Preston, 
Dorset. 

Baker, E. C. Stuart, C.I.E., O.B.E., F.L.S., H.F.A.O.U. ; 
6 Harold Road, Upper Norwood, S.E. 19. 

Bannerman, David A., M.B.E., Sc.D. (Chairman, 1932- 
1935) ; British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell 
Road, S.W. 7 ; and 7 Pembroke Gardens, Kensington, 
W. 8. 

Barclay-Smith, Miss P. ; Park Lodge, Hervey Road, Black- 
heath, S.E. 3. 

Barnes, Mrs. R. G. ; Hungerdown, Seagry, Wilts, 
io Barrington, Frederick J. F., M.S., F.R.C.S. ; University 
College Hospital Medical School, Gower Street, W.C. 1. 

Bates, G. L. ; Blasford Hill, Little Waltham, Chelmsford. 

Best, Miss M. G. S. ; Broadwater, Amport, Andover, Hants. 

Betham, Brigadier-General R. M., CLE. ; c/o The National 
Provincial and Union Bank of England, 208-209 Piccadilly, 
W. 1. 

Blaker, George B. ; Gaveston Place, Nuthurst, Horsham, 
Sussex. 
15 Boorman, S. ; Heath Farm, Send, Woking, Surrey. 

Booth, H. B. ; Ryhill, Ben Rhydding, Yorks. 

Boyd, A. W. ; Frandley House, near Northwich, Cheshire. 

Bradford, A. D. ; Garston House, near Watford, Herts. 



XII 

Brown, George ; Combe Manor, Hungerford, Berks. 
20 Bunyard, P. F. ; 57 Kidderminster Road, Croydon, Surrey. 
Butler, Arthur L. ; St. Leonard's Park, Horsham, 

Sussex. 
Buxton, Anthony ; Horsey Hall, Gt. Yarmouth, Norfolk. 
Campbell, Dr. James W. ; Layer Marney Hall, Kelvedon, 

Essex. 
Cave, Captain F. 0. ; Stoner Hill, Petersneld, Hants. 
25 Chapin, Dr. James P. ; Musee du Congo, Tervueren, Belgium ; 

and American Museum of Natural History, Central Park, 

New York City, U.S.A. 
Chapman, F. M. ; American Museum of Natural History, 

Central Park, New York City, U.S.A. 
Charles, Mrs. Edith S. ; Woodside House, Chenies, Bucks. 
Charteris, Hon. G. L. ; 24 Oxford Square, W. 2. 
Chasen, Frederick N. ; Raffles Museum, Singapore. 
30 Cheesman, Major R. E., O.B.E. ; Tilsden, Cranbrook, Kent. 
Clarke, Brig. -General Goland van Holt, C.M.G., D.S.O. ; 

Wis ton Park, Steyning, Sussex. 
Clarke, John P. Stephenson ; Broadhurst Manor, Horsted 

Keynes, Sussex. 
Clarke, Col. Stephenson Robert, C.B. ; Borde Hill, Cuck- 

field, Sussex. 
Cleave, Henry P. 0. ; Mansfield House, Kendrick Road, 

Reading. 
35 Cochrane, Captain Henry L., R.N. (retd.) ; Court Place, 

West Monkton, Taunton, Somerset. 
Conover, H. B. ; 6 Scott Street, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. 
Cunningham, Josias ; Drinagh, Kensington Road, Knock, 

Belfast, 
Curtis, Frederick, F.R.C.S. ; Alton House, Redhill, Surrey. 
Deane, Robert H. ; Anne Boleyn Cottage, Carlton Road, 

Seaford, Sussex. 
40 Delacour, Jean ; Chateau de Geres, Geres, Seine-Inferieure, 

France. 
Dewhurst, Major F. W., Royal Marine Barracks, Plymouth. 
Dobie, William Henry, M.R.C.S. ; 32 St. Martin's Fields, 

Chester. 



xin 



Duncan, Arthur Bryce ; Gilchristlands, Closeburn, Dum- 
friesshire. 
Ellis, Ralph, F.L.S. ; 2420 Ridge Road, Berkeley, California, 

U.S.A. 
45 Ezra, A., O.B.E. ; Foxwarren Park, Cobham, Surrey. 

Ferrier, Miss Judith M. ; Hemsby Hall, Hemsby, Norfolk. 
Fisher, James ; Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, N.W. 8. 
Fisher, Kenneth ; School House, Oundle, Northamptonshire. 
Flower, Major S. S. (Chairman, 1930-1932) ; 27 Park Road, 

Tring, Herts. 
50 Foulkes-Roberts, Captain P. R. ; Westwood, Goring-on- 

Thames, Oxon. 
Gilbert, H. A. ; Bishopstone, near Hereford. 
Glegg, W. E. ; 2 Burlington House, King's Road, Richmond, 

Surrey. 
Glenister, A. G. ; The Barn House, East Blatchington, 

Seaford, Sussex. 
Godman, Miss Eva ; South Lodge, Horsham, Sussex. 
55 Gosnell, H. T. ; The Boreen, Headley Down, Bordon, Hants. 
Grant, Captain C. H. B. (Editor of the ' Bulletin ') ; 58 a Ennis- 

more Gardens, S.W. 7. 
Gyldenstolpe, Count Nils ; Royal (Natural History) 

Museum, Stockholm, Sweden. 
Hachisuka, The Marquess ; 1921 Redcliff St., Los Angeles, 

Cahfornia, U.S.A. 
Haigh, George Henry Caton ; Grainsby Hall, Great 

Grimsby, Lincolnshire. 
60 Hale, Rev. James R., M.A. ; Yalding Vicarage, Maidstone, 

Kent. 
Hamerton, Colonel A. E. (Committee) ; 1 Park Village West, 

Regent's Park, N.W. 1. 
Harrison, Bernard Guy ; 45 St. Martin's Lane, W.C. 2. 
Harrison, James M., D.S.C., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. ; Bowerwood 

House, St. Botolph's Road, Sevenoaks, Kent. 
Heath, R. E. ; 2 Pembroke Court, Edwardes Square, W. 8. 
65 Hett, Geoffrey Seccombe, M.B., F.R.C.S. ; 86 Brook 

Street, Grosvenor Square, W. 1. 
Hill ? Geoffrey ; 27 Lincoln's Inn Fields, W.C. 2, 



XIV 



Hodgkin, Mrs. T. Edward ; Old Ridley, Stocksfield, North- 
umberland. 
Hollom, P. A. D. ; Rolvenden, Hook Heath, Weybridge, 

Surrey. 
Hopkinson, Emilius, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.B. ; Wynstay, 

Balcombe, Sussex. 
70 Hutson, Lieut-Col. H. P. W., R.E. ; Chatham House, Rome 

Gardens, Abassia, Cairo, Egypt. 
Inglis, C. McFarlane ; Natural History Museum, Darjiling, 

India. 
Ingram, Capt. Collingwood ; The Grange, Benenden, 

Cranbrook, Kent. 
Jabouillb, Pierre ; Chateau de Cleres, Cleres, Seine- 

Inferieure, France. 
Jordan, Dr. Karl ; Zoological Museum, Tring, Herts. 
75 Jourdain, Rev. F. C. R., M.A., H.F.A.O.U., H.M.S.O. de 

France ; Whitekirk, 4 Belle Vue Road, Southbourne, 

Hants. 
Joy, Norman H., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. ; Dungeness, Kent. 
Kinnear, Norman B. ; British Museum (Natural History), 

Cromwell Road, S.W. 7. 
Kloss, C. Boden ; Royal Societies Club, St. James's Street, 

S.W.I. 
Kuroda, Dr. Nagamichi ; Fukuyoshi Cho, Akasaka, Tokyo, 

Japan. 
80 Leach, Miss E. P. ; 17 Hereford Square, S.W. 7. 

Lewis, John Spedan ; Leckford Abbess, Stockbridge, Hants. 
Lloyd, Bertram ; 4 Tavistock Square, W.C. 1. 
Longfield, Miss Cynthia ; 20 Pont Street, S.W. 1. 
Low, George Carmichael, M.D., CM., F.R.C.P. ; 86 Brook 

Street, Grosvenor Square, W. 1. 
85 Lowe, P. R., O.B.E., M.B., B.C. (Chairman, 1927-1930) ; 

British Museum (Natural History), Cromwell Road, 

S.W. 7. 
Lucas, Nathaniel S., M.B. ; Bramblehurst, East Grinstead, 

Sussex. 
Lynes, Rear-Admiral Hubert, R.N., C.B., C.M.G. ; 169 

Cranmer Court, Chelsea, S.W. 3, 



XV 

Macdonald, J. D., B.Sc. ; British Museum (Natural History), 

Cromwell Road, S.W. 7. 
Mackenzie, John M. D., B.A., C.M.Z.S. ; Sidlaw Fur Farm, 

Tullach Ard, Balbeggie, Perthshire. 
90 McKittrick, T. H. ; Coombe Place, East Grinstead, Sussex. 
Mackworth-Praed, C. W., (Committee) ; 51 Onslow Gardens, 

S.W. 7. 
Macmillan, Captain W. E. F. ; 42 Onslow Square, S.W. 7. 
McNeile, J. H. (Committee) ; Nonsuch, Bromham, Chip- 
penham, Wilts. 
Macpherson, D. W. K. ; P.O., Lilongwe, Nyasaland. 
95 Magrath, Lieut. -Colonel H. A. F. ; c/o Lloyds Bank, 6 Pall 

Mall, S.W. 1. 
Mansfield, The Right Hon. the Earl of ; Scone Palace, 

Perth. 
Manson-Bahr, P. H., D.S.O., M.D., F.R.C.P. ; 149 Harley 

Street, W. 1. 
Mathews, G. M., F.R.S.E., H.F.A.O.U. (Chairman) ; Meadway, 

St. Cross, Winchester, Hants. 
Mavrogordato, J. G. ; Mariners, Westerham, Kent. 
IOO May, W. Norman, M.D. ; The White House, Sonning, Berks. 
Mayaud, Noel ; 1 Rue de Bordeaux, Saumur, France. 
Meinertzhagen, Colonel R., D.S.O. ; 17 Kensington Park 

Gardens, W. 8. 
Micholls, Mrs. Dorothy ; Silver Birches, Wentworth, 

Virginia Water, Surrey. 
Momiyama, Toku Taro ; 1146 Sasazka, Yoyohata-mati, 

Tokyo, Japan. 
105 Munn, P. W. ; Puerto Alcudia, Majorca, Balearic Isles, Spain. 
Murton, Mrs. CD.; Cranbrook Lodge, Cranbrook, Kent. 
Musselwhite, D. W. ; 59 Mayford Road, Wandsworth 

Common, S.W. 12. 
Naumburg, Mrs. W. W. ; 121 East 64th Street, New York 

City, U.S.A. 
Newman, T. H. ; Verulam, 46 Forty Avenue, Wembley Park, 

Middlesex, 
no Nicholson, E. M. ; 61 Marsham Street, S.W. 1. 

Norris, C. A. ; Grassholme, Stratford-on-Avon, Warwick- 
shire. 



XVI 

North, M. E. W. ; c/o Secretariat, Nairobi, Kenya. 

Oldham, Chas. ; Oxfield, Berkhamsted, Herts. 

Osmaston, Bertram Beresford ; 10 Collingwood Terrace, 

Westgate-on-Sea, Kent. 
115 Pakenham, R. H. W. ; Kingsley, Hurtis Hill, Crowborough, 

Sussex. 
Paulson, C. W. G. ; 10 King's Bench Walk, Temple, 

E.C. 4. 
Peall, Mrs. Oscar ; Oare, Marlborough, Wilts. 
Pease, H. J. R. ; Medmenham, Marlow, Bucks. 
Pitman, Capt. C. R. S., D.S.O., M.C. ; c/o Grindlay & Co., 

54 Parliament Street, S.W. 1. 
120 Popham, Hugh Leyborne, M.A. ; Hunstrete House, Pensford, 

Somerset. 
Priestley, Mrs. Mary ; 3 The Grove, Highgate Village, 

N. 6. 
Rhodes, Miss G. M. ; Hildersham Hall, Cambridge. 
Rickett, C. B. ; 27 Kendrick Road, Reading, Berks. 
Riviere, B. B., F.R.C.S. ; The Old Hall, Woodbastwick, 

Norfolk. 
125 Rothschild, The Right Hon. Lord, D.Sc, Ph.D., F.R.S. 

(Chairman, 1913-1918) ; Tring Park, Herts. 
Sandeman, R. G. C. C. ; Dan-y-parc, Crickhowell, Brecon. 
Schauensee, R. M. de ; Devon, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 
Schouteden, Dr. H. ; Musee du Congo, Tervueren, Belgium. 
Sclater, William Lutley, M.A. (Chairman, 1918-1924) ; 

10 Sloane Court, S.W. 3. 
130 Seth-Smith, David (Vice-Chairman) ; Curator's House, 

Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, N.W. 8. 
Sherriff, Albert ; 8 Ranulf Road, Hampstead, N.W. 2. 
Shipton, Wm., M.D. ; 2 The Square, Buxton, Derbyshire. 
Simonds, Major Maurice H. ; Fines Baylewick, Binfield, 

Berks. 
Sladen, Major A. G. L., M.C. (Treasurer) ; Horsenden Manor, 

Princes Risborough, Bucks. 
135 Sparrow, Col. R., C.M.G., D.S.O. ; The Lodge, Colne Engaine, 

Earls Colne, Essex. 
Stares, J. W, C. ; Port Chester, Hants. 



XVII 



Stevens, Herbert ; Clovelly, Beaconsfield Road, Tring, 

Herts. 
Stevens, Noel ; Walcot Hall, Lydbury North, Salop. 
Stonor, C. R. ; Zoological Society, Regent's Park, N.W. 8. 
140 Swynnerton, C. F. Massy ; Poste Restante, Dar-es-Salaam, 

Tanganyika Territory, East Africa. 
Taka-Tsukasa, Prince Nobusuke ; 1732 Sanchome, Kami- 

meguro, Meguro-Ku, Tokyo, Japan. 
Taylor, Miss D. L. ; Bellefields, Englefield Green, Surrey. 
Tavistock, The Most Hon. the Marquess of ; 76 St. James's 

Court, S.W. 1. 
Thomson, A. Landsborough, C.B., O.B.E., D.Sc. (Secretary) ; 

16 Tregunter Road, S.W. 10. 
145 Ticehurst, Claud B., M.A., M.R.C.S. ; Saxon House, 

Appledore, Kent. 
Ticehurst, N. F., O.B.E., M.B., F.R.C.S. ; 24 Pevensey 

Road, St. Leonards-on-Sea, Sussex. 
Tucker, B. W., B.A. ; 9 Marston Ferry Road, Oxford. 
Turner, Miss E. L. ; The Half Way Cottage, 13 Storey's 

Way, Cambridge. 
Turtle, Lancelot J. ; 17-21 Castle Place, Belfast. 
150 Tyrwhitt-Drake, Sir Hugh G. ; Cobtree Manor, Sandling, 

Maidstone, Kent. 
Urquhart, Capt. Alastair, D.S.O. ; Latimer Cottage, 

Latimer, Chesham, Bucks. 
van Someren, Dr. V. G. L. ; East Africa and Uganda Natural 

History Society, Coryndon Memorial Museum, Nairobi, 

Kenya Colony, East Africa. 
Vernay, A. S. ; 51 Berkeley Square, W. 1. 
Vincent, J. ; P. O. Box 361, Zanzibar, East Africa. 
155 Wade, Major G. A., M.C. ; St. Quintin, Sandy Lane, Newcastle- 

under-Lyme, Staffs. 
Wait, W. E., C.M.G., C.F.A.O.U. ; Applegarth, Aldbury, 

near Tring, Herts. 
Waite, Herbert William ; c/o Messrs. Grindlay & Co., Ltd., 

Bombay, India. 
Wallis, H. M. ; 110 Kendrick Road, Reading, Berks. 
Ware, R. ; Leafwood, Frant, Tunbridge Wells, Kent. 
vol. lvii. b 



XVIII 



160 Watt, Mrs. H. W. Boyd ; 90 Parliament Hill Mansions, 

Lissenden Gardens, N.W. 5. 
Whistler, Hugh, F.L.S. ; Caldbec House, Battle, Sussex. 
White, Charles M. N. ; Park-View, Garstang Road, 

Broughton, near Preston, Lanes. 
White, S. J. ; 17 Philpot Lane, E.C. 3. 
Whitley, H. ; Primley, Paignton, S. Devon. 
165 Willoughby-Ellis, H. ; Friary Hill, Weybridge, Surrey. 
Wishart, E. E. ; Marsh Farm, Bins ted, Arundel, Sussex. 
Witherby, Harry F., M.B.E. (Chairman, 1924-1927) ; 

Gracious Pond Farm, Chobham, near Woking, Surrey. 
Witherinton, G. ; Sumner Plat, Hayward's Heath, Sussex. 
Wood, Casey A., M.D. ; c/o The Library of Ornithology, 

McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 
170 Workman, William Hughes ; Lismore, Windsor Avenue, 

Belfast. 
Worms, Charles de ; Milton Park, Egham, Surrey. 



Total number of Members .... 171 



NOTICE. 

[Members are specially requested to keep the Hon. Secretary 
informed of any changes in their addresses, and those 
residing abroad should give early notification of coming home 
on leave.] 



LIST OE AUTHORS 

AND OTHER PERSONS REFERRED TO. 



Page 
Accounts, Statement of 4 

Alexander, W. B. 

Remarks on the Isle of May Bird Observatory in 1936 . . 50-52 

Annual General Meeting 2 

Bannerman, Dr. D. A. 

Exhibition of slides of Marocco, with an account of his 
experiences there last March 5_7 

Description of a new subspecies of Reed- Warbler (Acro- 
cephalus bseticatus nyong) from the Cameroons 9-10 

Description of a new Swamp-Warbler (Brachypterus 
brachypterus chadcnsis) from Lake Chad 43 

A note on the Fan- tailed Warbler {Schoenicola brevirostris) . 70-71 

Description of a new Swamp -Warbler (Calamoacetor lepto- 
rhyncha tsanse) from Abyssinia 71-72 

Description of a new Forest -Warbler (Apalis cinema 
funebris) from the Cameroons 72 

Description of a new race of Eremomela (Ercmomela 
scolops angolensis) from N. Angola 111-112 

Barrington, F. J. F. 

Exhibition of slides from Tmiisia, with remarks on that 
country and its bird-life rj 



XX 

Page 
Bates, G. L. 

1. On the identity of Spizocorys eremica 14 

2. On the type -locality of Turturoena iriditorques 14 

3. On certain genera of Woodpeckers 15 

4. On interesting birds recently sent to the British 

Museum from Arabia by Mr. H. St. J. B. Philby 17 

Also descriptions of three new subspecies from Arabia : — 
Pica pica asirensis, Saxicola torquata felix, and Scotocerca 
inquieta grisea 19-21 

Change of name of Alseonax flavitarsus for Alseonax 
flavipes 100 

A note on the identity of Saxicola sennaarensis 100-101 

Descriptions of two new races of Arabian birds : — 
Otus senegalensis pamelse and Chrysococcyx Maasi arabicus . . 150-151 

and N. B. Kinnear. 

Remarks on a collection of birds made by Mr. W. H. 
Ingrams in Arabia, with a description of a new race of 
Sandgrouse (Pterocles lichtensteinii ingramsi) 142 

Benson, C. W. 

A correction to his note on Apalis bamcndsc bensoni 
which appeared in the ' Bulletin ' for April 1936, p. 102 . . 105 

Boulton, Rudyerd. (See under Vincent, Jack.) 

BUNYAED, P. F. 

Exhibition of, and remarks on, a series of eggs from 
Alberta, together with the eggs of the American Nightjar 
(Chordeiles minor minor) 38-42 

Exhibition of, and remarks on, a series of Blackbird's eggs. 134-136 

Buxton, A. 

Exhibition of a film of Pochard flocks in winter, and 
Water-Rail and Sparrow-Hawks at their nests 109 

Cave, Major F. O. (See under Macdonald, J. D.) 

Chairman, The. 

Annual Address 32-35 

Chapin, Dr. J. P. 

Exhibition of the type-specimen and remarks on the 
discovery of Afropavo congensis 84-85 



XXI 

Page 

Clancey, P. A. 

Description of a new race of Wren (Troglodytes troglodytes 

znus) from Scotland 143 



Committee for 1936-1937 3 

Corrigenda 28, 93, 160 

Delacour, J. 

Remarks on some of the wild birds he had seen during 
his visit to North America in 1936 96-98 

Proposed a new generic name, Phoeoaythia, for Phseonetta . 157 

and the Marquess Hachisuka. 

Description of a new species, Erythrura viridifacies, 
from Luzon 66-67 

Gilbert, H. A. 

Remarks on British Duck decoys 86-87 

Grant, Capt. C. H. B., and C. W. Mackworth-Praed. 

A note on the type -locality of Columba guinea 22-23 

1. On the distribution of two East African races of 

Pternistis afer 43 

2. On the correct name for the resident and migratory 

Kentish Plover of Eastern Africa 44 

3. On the exact type-locality of Poliocephalus rufiventris 

pallidus 47 

1. On the type-locality of Treron schalowi, and the 

distribution of the races of Vinago wakefieldii 74-77 

2. On the movements of the Lesser Cuckoo during the 

non-breeding season 77-78 

3. On the races of the White-throated Robin-Chat, with 

a description of a new race, Bessonornis macclounil 
mbuluensis, from Tanganyika Territory 78-80 

1. On the races of Vinago delalandii ". . . 87-88 

2. On the races of the European Cuckoo which visit 

Eastern Africa in the non-breeding season 89 

3. The subspecific status of Centropus burchellii and 

Centropus fasciipygialis, and their relationship to 

Central African forms 90-92 



XXII 

Page 
Grant, Capt. C. H. B., and C. W. Macxwosth-Pmed (cont.). 

Descriptions of two new races, Geokiehla piaggise rowei, 
from Tanganyika Territory, and Apalis murina bensoni, 
from Nyasaland 101-102 

1. On the races of Streptopelia decipiens 102-103 

2. On the status of Pachycoccyx validus canescens 104 

Sent the following change of name : — 
Apalis murina whitei for Apalis murina bensoni 114-115 

1. On the races of Vinago australis occurring in Eastern 

Africa 115-116 

2. On the races of Centropus monachus occurring in 

Eastern Africa 1 16-117 

1. On Melittophagus sharpei 128-129 

2. On the type-locality of Melittophagus bullockoides 129 

3. On the relationship of Melittophagus variegatus and 

Melittophagus lajresnayii 129-130 

1. On the type-locality of Zosterops toroensis 137 

2. On the status of Bycanisles cristatus brevis 137-138 

3. On the type-locality of Lophoceros deckeni 138 

4. On the type-locality of Strix woodfordii woodfordii ... 138 

5. On the type-locality of Glaucidium capense castaneum . 138-139 

1. On the type-locality of Tyto alba affmis 157 

2. On the type-locality of Tyto capensis capensis 157-158 

3. On the type-locality of Carine noctua somaliensis 158 

4. On the type-locality of Bubo capensis dillonii 158 

5. On the type-locality of Bubo africanus cinerascens .... 158 

6. On the races of Scotopelia peli 158-159 

7. On the type-locality of Zosterops toroensis 159 



Hachisuka, The Marquess. 

A note on the first records of Merops persicus chrysocercus 
from Marocco 99 

A note on Afropavo congensis 124 

A proposed new genus, Kuina, and a description of a new 
Kail, Kuina mundyi, from Mauritius 154-157 



XXIII 

Page 
Hachisuka, The Marquess, and J. Delacour. 

Description of a new species, Erythrura viridifacies, from 
Luzon 66-67 

Harrison, Dr. J. M. 

A note on European Chaffinches and the description 
of a new race, Fringilla ccelebs scotica, from S.W. Scotland. . 64-65 

Exhibition of a series of British Thrushes 120 

Harrisson, T. H., and A. J. Marshall. 

Description of a new species of Aplonis from the New 
Hebrides, Aplonis santovestris 148-150 

Jordan, Dr. K. 

Appointment of Mr. F. Hemming as the new Secretary of 
the International Committee on Zoological Nomenclature . . 35 

Remarks on Dr. Rowan's exhibit and his observations. . . 38 

Jourdain, Rev. F. C. R. 

Showed slides from Marocco and western Algeria, with 
remarks on the avifauna of these areas 7 

Remarks on the specific identity of the Carrion- and 
Hooded Crows 52-54 

Exhibition of, and remarks on, a clutch of eggs taken at 
Constantine, Algeria 98 

KlNNEAR, N. B. 

Announced the acquisition of the type-specimen of 
fifteen British and Irish subspecies from the Rothschild 
Museum, forwarded from the President of the American 
Museum of National History 5 

Description of a new race of ApaJis, Apalis thoracica 
youngi, from Nyasaland 8 

Exhibition, on behalf of the Marquess Hachisuka, of a 
restoration of the Solitaire, Ornithaptera solitaria 141 

and G. L. Bates. 

Remarks on a collection of birds made by Mr. W. H. 
Ingrams in Arabia, with a description of a new race of 
Sandgrouse (Pterocles lichtensternii ingramsi) J4i> 



XXIV 

Page 
Literature, List of (referred to at Annual Address) 34-35 

Low, Dr. G. Carmichael. 

Exhibition of, and remarks on, a tumour found in a 
Partridge 98-99 

Exhibition of a series of Redshank and Ringed Plover skins 
from Orkney 121-123 

Lowe, Dr. P. R. 

Remarks on the overlap in distribution of two Wood- 
peckers of the genus Colaptes, and two North American 
Warblers of the genus Helminthophila 56-57 

Remarks on the discovery of Afropavo congensis 85-86 

Macdonald, J. D., and Major F. O. Cave. 

A note on Accipiter brevipes being a new record from the 
Anglo -Egyptian Sudan 125 

Mackworth-Praed, C. W. (See under Grant, Capt. C. H. B.) 

Manson-Bahr, Dr. P. H. 

Remarks on a trip in the South Atlantic 120 

Marshall, A. J. 

Remarks on a recent expedition to New Guinea 134 

. (See under Harrisson, T. H.). 

Mathews, G. M. 

Description of a new form of the Little -blue Petrel 
(Alphapuffinus assimilis glauerti) from Western Australia, 
with remarks on the occurrence of the Kermadec Petrel 
in England 24-25 

Description of a new race of Shearwater (Puffinus diomedea 
disputans) from Kerguelen Island 123 

Sent notes on proposed changing of names of Petrels . . . 123-124 

Description of a new Shearwater (Puffinus leptorhynchus) 
from South-western Australia 143-144 

Notes on Storm-Petrels, with a new genus, Fregodroma, 
and a description of a new species, Fregodroma leucothysanus, 
from the Indian Ocean 144-147 



XXV 

Page 
Mavrogordato, J. G. 

Exhibition of a film, with remarks on the sexual aberra- 
tions of a trained Goshawk 58-62 

Maye, Dr. E. 

Description of a new Honey-eater (Melidectes belfordi 
kinneari) from Dutch New Guinea 42-43 

Meinertzhagen, Col. R. 

Remarks on Mr. Jourdain's observations on the specific 
identity of the Carrion- and Hooded Crows 56 

Descriptions of six new races from Kenya Colony : — 
Francolinus jacksoni pollenorum, Francolinus shelleyi theresae, 
Onychognathus tenuirostris raymondi, Onychognaihus tenui- 
rostris theresse, Turdoides melanops vepres, and Micropus 
melba striatus 67-70 

More au, R. E. 

Sent notes and observations on Thripias namaquus, 
Arizelocichla chlorigula, Chloropetella holochlorus, and 

Mesopicos griseocephalus 10-14 

Note on the species Dioptrornis fischeri 72-74 

Note on Phyllastrephus fischeri and related forms 125-128 

Neumann, Prof. O. 

Sent descriptions of four new races from Sumatra : — 
Hemiprocne comata stresemanni, Pericrocotus miniatus dam- 
mermani, Napothera epilepidota mendeni, and Lanius schach 
sumatrse 151-154 

Obituary 32 

Pakenham, R. H. W. 

Remarks on Charadrius forbesi being the first record of this 
species occurring in East Africa 87 

Description of a new Scops Owl (Otus pembaensis) from 
Pemba Island 112-114 

Payn, Lt.-Col. W. A. 

Remarks on the birds of Tangier 7 

Phillips, A. S. 

Exhibition of a film of various species at their nests or 

breeding places 100 

VOL. LVII. C 



XXVI 

Page 
Pike, O. G. 

Exhibition of a film entitled " Bird Sanctuary," illustrating 
the birds breeding on the Fame Islands. . . 109 

POPHAM, H. LeYBORNE. 

Remarks on bird-life in Holland 120 

Roberts, Dr. Austin. 

Sent the change of name of Apalis thoracica drakens- 
bergensis for Apalis thoracica alticola 99 

Rothschild, Lord. 

Descriptions of two new subspecies of Cassowary 
(Casuarius papuanus shawmayeri and Casuarius casuarius 
grandis) from New Guinea 120-121 

Rowan, Dr. W. 

Exhibition of slides illustrating the bird-life of Alberta, 
with special reference to species included in the British List. 36-38 

Exhibition of a film illustrating the " muskegs " of Alberta 

and their bird-life 109 

Salomonsen, Dr. Finn. 

Exhibition of two films from his expedition to Greenland, 
showing the life of Eskimos, and of various species of birds . 62 

SCLATER, W. L. 

A new genus, Calamsecetor, for Calamornis, preoccupied . . 22 

Thomson, Dr. A. Landsborough. 

Showed some cones of the Swiss stone-pine, on which 
Thick-billed Nutcrackers had been feeding 50 

Ticehurst, Dr. C. B. 

A communication proving the Iberian Chiffchaff to be 
distinct, and describing it as Phylloscopus collybita ibericus . 63-64 

A description of a new Phylloscopus (Phylloscopus tibetanus) 
from S. Tibet 109-110 

Forwarded a description of a new race Pteruthius 
erythropterus yunnanensis, from N.W. Yunnan 147 



XXVII 

Page 
Vincent, Jack, and Rudyerd Boulton. 

Description of a new Prinia (Prinia flavicans bihe) 
from Angola 7-8 

Waterston, G. 

Exhibition of the Booted Warbler (Hippolais caligata), 
a new species to the British Isles 50 

White, C. M. N. 

1. On Hirundo tahitica neoxena and Hirundo tahitica 

carteri, together with a new description of Hirundo 

tahitica parsoni from Queensland 26-28 

2. On Petroica vittata 26-28 

Description of a new form of Chukor (Alectoris grseca 
scotti) from Crete 65-66 

A note on Sterna nereis 110-1 1 1 

Description of a new race of Pitta {Pitta novseguinese 
goodfellowi) from the Aru Islands 136-137 

WlTHERBY, H. F. 

Remarks on Mr. Jourdain's observations on the specific 
identity of the Carrion- and Hooded Crows 55-56 

Hybrids between various species of Duck proving to be 
fertile '. 58 



tgP BULLETIN 



ST 



OF THE 



BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB. 




No. COOXCVIII. 

U ] J) 

The three-hundred-and-ninety-third Meeting of the Club was 
held at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on 
Wednesday, October 14, 1936. 

Chairman : Mr. D. Seth-Smith. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; W. B. Alexander ; 
E. C. Stuart Baker; D. A. Bannerman ; Miss P. Barclay- 
Smith; F. J. F. Barrington; Brig.-Gen. R. M. Betham; 
G. Brown ; P. F. Bunyard ; Mrs. E. S. Charles ; Hon. G. L. 
Charteris; H. P. 0. Cleave; Major-Gen. Sir P. Z. Cox; 
A. Ezra; Miss J. M. Ferrier; Major S. S. Flower; H. A. 
Gilbert ; Capt. C. H. B. Grant {Editor) ; Dr. J. M. Harrison ; 
Mrs. C. Hodgkin; P. A. D. Hollom; Lt.-Commdr. A. M. 
Hughes; Dr. K. Jordan; Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain; 
Dr. N. H. Joy ; N. B. Kinnear ; Miss E. P. Leach ; Miss C. 
Longfield; Dr. G. Carmichael Low; Dr. P. R. Lowe; 
Rear- Admiral H. Lynes ; C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; 
J. H. McNeile; Lt.-Col. H. A. F. Magrath; Dr. P. H. 
Manson-Bahr; J. G. Mavrogordato ; Dr. W. N. May; 
Col. R. Meinertzhagen ; T. H. Newman ; E. M. Nicholson ; 
C. A. Norris; C. Oldham; B. B. Osmaston; C. W. G. 
Paulson; H. J. R. Pease; H. Leyborne Popham; 
Mrs. M. Priestley ; W. L. Sclater ; Major M. H. Simonds ; 
Major A. G. Lambert Sladen (Hon. Treas.) ; Col. R. Sparrow ; 
Miss D. L. Taylor; Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson 

[November 11, 1936.] a vol. lvii. 



Vol. lvii.] 2 

(Hon. Sec); Dr. C. B.Ticehurst; B.W. Tucker; Miss E. L. 
Turner; W. E. Wait; H. M. Waite; Mrs. H. W. Boyd 
Watt ; H. Whistler ; H. F. Witherby ; C. G. M. de Worms. 

Members of the B.O. U. :— Miss B. A. Carter; W. P. 
Lowe ; R. E. Moreau ; Lt.-Col. W. A. Payn. 

Guests : — Mrs. D. A. Bannerman ; W. K. Dods ; N. B. 
Dyball; Mrs. S. S. Flower; Mrs. M. V. Gilbert; 
B. Harrisson ; Mrs. B. Harrisson ; N. J. Lied ; Miss L. 
Lodge; Miss B. S. Lynes; Mrs. E. M. Manson-Bahr; 
Dr. P. H. Martin; Miss Maynard; Mrs. R. E. Moreau; 
W. H. Perrett ; F. Pike ; Miss P. Pittard ; Miss Preston ; 
Dr. W. Rowan; P. W. Sandeman; Mrs. Sclater; 
Commdr. R. M. Southern; Miss Steinthal; Mrs. A. L. 
Thomson; H. Boyd Watt; Mrs. Witherby. 

Members of the Club, 62; Members of the B. O. U., 4; 
Guests, 26. 

Annual General Meeting 
Chairman: Mr. H. Whistler. 

This was held at the Rembrandt Hotel at 6.15 p.m., before 
the Ordinary Meeting. The minutes of the Special General 
Meeting held on October 9, 1935, and the minutes of the last 
Annual General Meeting, on the same date, were confirmed. 

Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson then submitted his 
Secretary's Report. He said that the number of members 
showed a net decrease of six. He regretted to record the 
deaths of Mr. F. E. Blaauw, Lieut.-Col. A. Delme-Radcliffe, 
and Mr. J. Sladen Wing. Seven members had resigned, 
and one had been removed from the list under Rule IV. 
Five new members had joined the Club. 

The usual meetings had been held. The total attendances 
were 550; this fell below the record of 603 established last 
year, but was still above the previous best of 539 in the year 
before. The report was approved. 

Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed submitted his Treasurer's 
Report. The Financial Statement had been circulated and 
called for no special comment : the balance in hand was 
greater by some £34 than at the beginning of the year. The 
report was approved, 



3 [Vol. Mi. 

Mr. D. Seth-Smith was elected Vice-Chairman in place of 
Mr. H. Whistler, whose period of office terminated. 

Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson was re-elected Hon. 
Secretary. 

Major A. G. Lambert Sladen was elected Hon. Treasurer in 
place of Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed, who vacated that office. 
A vote of thanks to the retiring Treasurer was carried by 
acclamation. 

Mr. W. B. Alexander and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
were elected members of the Committee in place of Mr. A. Ezra 
and Dr. J. M. Harrison. 

The Secretary then reported that the Committee sought 
the opinion of the Club on a proposal that the meeting after 
the March dinner should be held at the house of the Royal 
Geographical Society in Kensington Gore. The use of the 
fine auditorium there and its projection apparatus could be 
obtained at small cost, and private 'buses would transport 
the company from the Rembrandt Hotel in a few minutes. 
This meeting was attended by increasingly large numbers, 
and was devoted to the exhibition of films and slides. Holding 
it in the hotel dining-room was unsatisfactory in various ways, 
involving considerable discomfort and difficulties as regards 
projection. On the other hand, there was some disadvantage 
in having the dinner and the meeting at different places. 
The change, if made, would be in the nature of an experiment, 
not necessarily to be repeated in subsequent years. 

After discussion, the proposal was unanimously approved. 

Committee, 1936-1937 

Mr. G. M. Mathews, Chairman (elected 1935). 

Mr. D. Seth-Smith, Vice-Chairman (elected 1936). 

Captain Claude H. B. Grant, Editor (elected 1935). 

Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson, Hon. Secretary (elected 1935). 

Major A. G. Lambert Sladen, Hon. Treasurer (elected 1936). 

Colonel A. E. Hamerton (elected 1934). 

Mr. J. H. McNeill (elected 1935). 

Mr. W. B. Alexander (elected 1936). 

Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed (elected 1936). 

a 2 



Vol. Mi.] 



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5 [Vol. lvii. 

After dinner, before the business of the Ordinary Meeting 
was begun, the chair was temporarily taken by the President 
of the British Ornithologists' Union, Mr. H. F. Witherby, 
who presented the Godman-Salvin Medal to Rear-Admiral 
Hubert Lynes, C.B., C.M.G., in recognition of his distinguished 
ornithological work. 

Mr. N. B. Kinnear announced that the President of the 
American Museum of Natural History had recently forwarded 
to the Director of the British Museum, through Dr. Leonard 
C. Sanford, the type -specimens of fifteen British and Irish 
subspecies from the Rothschild collection. 

In his letter he says : — " Since the most important purpose 
that these specimens can serve is to be readily available to 
European, and particularly to British, ornithological students, 
the staff of our Department of Birds has felt that it would be 
helpful to the cause of science to return these fifteen specimens 
to England for permanent deposit in the British Museum. 
With these sentiments the President and Trustees of the 
American Museum heartily concur." Adding that : — " We 
hope that the Trustees of the British Museum may see fit 
to accept the specimens as a gift from our institution, and 
that their presence in the British Museum may prove of 
practical and lasting value to ornithology." 

The specimens include thirteen types described by the 
late Dr. Hartert, one by that ornithologist and Mr. Witherby, 
and one by Dr. Hellmayr. The gift of fifteen types by one 
Museum to another must, I think, be unique in the history 
of science. I am sure all ornithologists here tonight will 
appreciate this generous act, not merely for the actual value 
of the specimens, but for the spirit of co-operation in which it 
is made. 

Mr. F. J. F. Barrington showed slides of Tunisia, and 
made some remarks on that country and its bird-life. 

Mr. David Bannerman showed a series of over fifty slides 
of Morocco, and gave an account of his experiences there 
last March, when he visited Tangier, Tetuan, Xauen in the 
Spanish Riff country, Fez, Meknes, Azrou in the Middle Atlas 



Vol. lvii.] 6 

(where snow was lying in the cedar forests at 6000 ft.), and 
Marrakesh. The most interesting slides were those of Xaueri, 
where Rear- Admiral Lynes collected birds in 1923, a village 
in the Spanish zone where few ornithologists have set foot. 

Mr. Bannerman described the birds which he had met with 
during the tour, among which may be mentioned the first 
record for Morocco of the Persian Bee-eater (Merops persicus 
chrysocercus) , which was seen between Ouaumana and Khenifra, 
on the road from Marrakesh to Azrou ; this was on March 26. 
On a reservoir of the Sultan's Garden at Marrakesh four 
Pochards (Nyroca f. ferina) were seen, and two little Grebes 
(Podiceps ruficollis ruficollis) on March 25 midst a large 
concourse of Tufted Duck (Nyroca fuligula) and Coots. Of 
migrants, the arrival of hundreds of Little Swifts (Colletoptera 
affinis galilejensis) was noted at Marrakesh between March 20 
and 25, and Alpine Swifts (Micropus melba tuneti) were very 
numerous at the same place and on the same dates. These 
Alpine Swifts were equally common at Fez on March 28, 
but none were seen at Azrou on March 26. European Bee-eaters 
(Merops apiaster) arrived in swarms at Marrakesh on March 22, 
and on following days were passing north. A marked migra- 
tion of Lesser Kestrels (Falco naumanni naumanni) was noted 
between Tangier and the Caves of Hercules, on the Tangier- 
Arzila road, on March 17, the birds passing north on a clear 
still day. House-Martins (Delichon urbica, probably meri- 
dionalis) were observed only once, at Marrakesh on March 26, 
and on March 21 at Marrakesh Chiffchafis (Phylloscopus 
collybita), Blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla), Redstarts (Phosni- 
curus ph. phoenicurus) , Woodchat- Shrikes (Lanius senator 
senator), and White Wagtails (Motacilla alba), and near the 
Oued el Abid on March 26 Woodlarks (Lullula arborea) 
were noted. A Nightingale (Luscinia m. megarhyncha) was 
heard singing in the Momounia Hotel garden at Marrakesh on 
March 25. Sand-Martins were seen flying over the river at 
Tadla town on March 26, but as both Riparia riparia riparia 
and Riparia paludicola mauritanica occur in Morocco at this 
season, and we did not secure specimens, the record is of little 
value. One or the other was present in some numbers, and 



7 [Vol. lvii. 

was the only occasion that a member of this genus was seen 
throughout the tour. 

As Vultures are exceedingly scarce in Morocco, and members 
of the Family Corvidse, apart from the Raven, almost equally 
scarce, it may be worth recording the presence of Neophron 
p. percnopterus and the Moorish Magpie (Pica pica mauritanica) , 
both of which were seen between Tadla and Khenifra, on 
the Marrakesh-Azrou road, and nowhere else on any part 
of the extensive route traversed. Red-rumped Swallows 
[Hirundo daurica rufula) were seen hawking along the battle- 
ments of the city walls at Marrakesh, and are known to nest 
in the vicinity in the Great Atlas Region. 

Considering how scanty is the literature on Morocco, 
and how imperfectly the distribution, status, and dates of 
passage-migrants are known, it is hoped that the above records 
may be worth recording. 

The Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain showed a series of slides from 
Marocco and the Province of Oran, western Algeria, and made 
some remarks on the avifauna of these areas. 

Lt.-Col. W. A. Payn also made some remarks on the birds 
of Tangier. 

Messrs. RuDYiRD Botjlton and Jack Vincent sent the 
following description of a new race of Prinia : — 

Prinia flavicans bihe, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Differs from typical P. f. flavicans (Vieillot, 
Enc. Meth. ii, p. 438, 1820 : Namaqualand, S. Africa) in 
having the upper parts distinctly darker, the pectoral band 
blacker, and the flanks not uniform in colour with the breast, 
but more greyish -olive. [The type and three specimens from 
Mulonde have been compared with a series from Bechuana- 
land.— R. B.] 

Distribution. — The central plateau of Angola. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male collected by 
Rear-Admiral H. Lynes, C.B., C.M.G., and J. Vincent at 



Vol. lvii.] 8 

Vouga, 5800 ft., Bihe, Central Angola. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 
1931.12.21.94. 

Measurements of the type. — Total length in flesh 145, wing 
53-5, tail 61, culmen from base of skull 13, tarsus 22 mm. 

Remarks. — This new race, which comes from the high plateau 
of the Bihe district in Central Angola, extends the range of 
the species to an area far removed from any previous record. 
The type-specimen had gonads subsiding after recent breeding, 
and was shot in short scrub at the edge of the large " bulubulu " 
prairies which are characteristic of the Angolan plateau. 
Bihe is pronounced " B-A." 

Colours of the soft parts. — Irides pale raw sienna ; bill black ; 
feet ochreous flesh ; claws darkish sepia. 

Mr. N. B. Kinnear sent the following description of a new 
race of Apalis : — 

Apalis thoracica youngi, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Very similar to Apalis thoracica murina 
Reichenow, but differs from that race in the slaty -grey colour 
of the upper parts and the absence of the olive -yellow on the 
rump, abdomen, flanks, and crissum. 

Distribution. — From Vipya to Nyankhowa, Northern Nyasa- 
land. 

Type. — Female collected by C. W. Benson at Vipya, 6000 ft., 
Northern Nyasaland, on May 8, 1935. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 
1935.10.9.5. 

Measurement of the type. — Wing 52, culmen from base 15, 
tail 45, tarsus 21 mm. 

Remarks. — Seven specimens measured and examined. 
Wing 48-52, tail 45-49, culmen from base 15, tarsus 21-22 mm. 
Two examples from Vipya have an indication of the olive - 
green coloration on the rump, abdomen, and thighs. It is 
important in this genus to compare specimens in similar 
plumage, as the colour of the head and back vary considerably 
according to abrasion and fading. 

This race is named in honour of the Rev. W. P. Young, 
who sent the first examples to the Museum, but owing to the 
worn state of the plumage it was not possible to make any 
of his specimens the type. 



9 [Vol. lvii. 

Mr. David Bannerman sent the description of a new 
subspecies of Reed- War bier from the Cameroons, which he 
proposed to name 

'Acrocephalus baeticatus nyong, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Adult. Most nearly allied to Acrocephalus 
bseticatus cinnamomeus , from which race it differs in having 
the entire upper parts warm brown, considerably deeper and 
richer in tone than in the form mentioned. The underparts 
are likewise washed with the same colour, the sides of the 
breast and flanks almost uniform rich brown, middle of 
belly cream -colour, throat white. Rest of plumage as in 
A. b. cinnamomeus. 

Distribution. — Known from a single male example obtained 
at Akonolinga, Nyong River, S. Cameroons, by G. L. Bates. 

Type. — Male, January 4, 1913, Akonolinga, Nyong River, 
collected by G. L. Bates. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1920.6.26.-437 

Measurements of the type. — Wing 54, culmen 11, tail 40, tarsus 
21 mm. 

Remarks. — For literature concerning this specimen see 
Lynes, Ibis, 1925, p. 82, under A. b. minor, and Bates, Ibis, 
1927, p. 37, under Acrocephalus bseticatus near minor. I had 
long been unable to place this specimen to my satisfaction, 
and had made a note in my copy of the ' Systema Avium 
iEthiopicarum ' that the Nyong River bird was unlike anything 
in the British Museum series of Reed- Warblers. It fell to 
my lot, in conjunction with Ogilvie-Grant, to report (Ibis, 
1917 and 1921) on the Nyong River specimens in Bates's 
collection, but we were then unable to come to any satisfactory 
conclusion about this bird and, hoping to receive more speci- 
mens anon, Ogilvie-Grant omitted it from the list of the 
Passerine species upon which he reported in 1917. For long 
the skin remained in the box with A. b. cinnamomeus, until 
Mr. Jack Vincent separated it and placed a MS. note alongside 
it, remarking, " this single specimen surely represents some- 
thing undescribed," thus confirming, entirely independently, 
what others had thought probable. As I have now to include 
it somewhere in the fifth volume of the ' Birds of Tropical 
West Africa,' and as it seems most unlikely that further 

a 5 



Vol. lvii.] 10 

specimens will be secured from that neighbourhood, I am taking 
the slight risk of describing it as a new subspecies. As Bates 
has already pointed out (Ibis, 1927, p. 37), no other bird of 
this species has ever been found in West Africa ; the nearest 
locality to Akonolinga, from which the nearest allied race 
(A b. cinnamomeus) has been found, is Fort Archambault, 
in French Shari, some 700 miles as the crow flies from the 
type-locality of the Nyong Reed-Warbler herewith described 
as new. It may be remarked that in the twelve examples of 
A. b. cinnamomeus examined, all are perfectly uniform in 
colouring, and none approach the rich tone of A. b. nyong. 

Mr. Mobeatj sent the following four notes : — 
(1) Thripias namaquus Lichtenstein. 

In the ' Sy sterna Avium ^Ethiopicarum ' Sclater listed, 
in addition to the typical form, five races, all of which he con- 
sidered " doubtfully distinct " except T. n. schoensis (Riipp.). 
Recently Granvik has described a further form, T. n. turkanse 
(Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. xxv. 1934, p. 54). 

I have examined the material available in the British 
Museum, amounting to eighty-two skins, which include topo- 
typical specimens of all the described forms. I am struck 
with the amount of the individual variation, in birds from the 
same locality, in the coloration and marking of both the upper 
and the underparts. The auricular patch, used as a character 
by Claude Grant in describing T . n. intermedins (Bull. B. O. C. 
xxxv. 1915, p. 101), is of no value. One broad distinction can, 
however, be made : birds from the most northerly part of 
the species' extensive range have a sooty patch on the breast 
more or less decidedly blackish in colour, and suppressing 
barring or spotting, while birds from East and South Africa 
all have their underparts wholly barred. 

I conclude that only two forms can be properly dis- 
tinguished : — 

Thripias n. namaquus Licht., Cat. rer. rar. Hamburg, 
1793, p. 17 : Damaraland ; of which T. n. decipiens (Sharpe), 
J. Linn. Soc, Zool. xvii. 1884, p. 430: Shimba Hills (S.W. 
of Mombasa) — not Zanzibar Island, as given by most authors ; 
T. n. angolensis Rchw., Vogel Afrikas, ii. 1902, p. 190 : Northern 



11 [Vol. Mi. 

Angola ; T. n. intermedins Grant, Bull. B. O. C. xxxv. 1915, 
p. 101 : Ugogo, Dodoma District, Tanganyika Territory ; 
and T. n. semischoensis Lonnberg, Ark. Zool. x. no. 24, 1917, 
p. 19 : Kasindi, Lake Edward, Belgian Congo, are synonyms. 

The range of T. n. namaquus is : — Damaraland to northern 
Angola in the west, across to Transvaal and Zululand in the 
east, thence northwards to Uganda, central Kenya Colony, 
and Mombasa. 

T. n. schoensis (Rupp.), Mus. Senck. iii. 1840, p. 120 : Shoa, 
Central Abyssinia ; of which T.n. turkanse Granvik, Rev. Zool. 
Bot. Afr. xxv. 1934, p. 54 : Turkwell, north-western Kenya 
Colony, is a synonym. 

Range of T. n. schoensis : — British Somaliland (Burao), 
through S. Abyssinia and upper Jubaland, round the south end 
of Lake Rudolf to the Turkwell, Bahr-el-Ghazal, and Darfur. 

It may be noted that the boundary between the northern 
and southern forms is founded on material in the British 
Museum, and agrees with that given by van Someren (Nov. 
Zool. xxxviii. p. 283, 1932) between T. n. schoensis and the 
form extending northwards beyond Nairobi, which he tenta- 
tively calls T. n. decipiens. 

(2) Arizelocichla chlorigula. 

In the ' Systema Avium iEthiopicarum ' (ii. 1924, p. 389) 
Arizelocichla chlorigula schusteri Rchw. (Orn. Monatsber. 
xxi. 1913, p. 161) from the Nguru Mts. is stated to be " probably 
identical " with the typical form from Iringa. Lynes has 
compared the types of A . chlorigula and A . schusteri, and thinks 
that the difference between them is due to the latter being 
in a better state of dress (J. Orn. 1934, p. 75, Sonderh.). 

Five birds are now available in the British Museum collection, 
and through the kindness of the Berlin Museum the type of 
A. chlorigula has been sent for examination. This proves 
to be without doubt an immature bird. Therefore only one 
form can be recognized, as follows : — 

A. chlorigula (Rchw.), Orn. Monatsber. 1899, p. 8; of which 
A. c. schusteri Rchw. is a synonym. 

Distribution. — Iringa, South Ukaguru (north-east of Kilosa), 
to Nguru, Tanganyika Territory. 

06 



Vol. lvii.l 12 

(3) Chloropetella holochlorus. 

Roberts described his Chloropetella suahelica (Ann. Trans. 
Mus. vi. 1917, p. 1) in ignorance of the existence of 
Erythrocercus holochlorus Erl. (Orn. Monatsber. ix. 1901, 
p. 181). Sclater reviewed the genus (Bull. B. O. C. xlvii. 1926, 
p. 31) and concluded that Roberts's bird, which was then 
known only from the type (a female), resembled Erlanger's 
"in all respects except that the wing was larger." He 
therefore maintained C. suahelica as a race of C. holochlorus 
in the ' Sy sterna Avium iEthiopicarum.' 

Erlanger in his original description gave the wing-measure- 
ments of his material as male 50 mm., female 45 mm. ; an 
unsexed topotype from Gobwen, Juba River, in the National 
Collection has wing 45 mm. Roberts gave the wing of his type 
(female) as 48 mm. ; a female topotype collected by Fuggles- 
Couchman (Pugu Hills, S.W. of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanganyika 
Territory), measures only 45 mm. Thus birds from the two 
extremities of the species' range have the same wing-length. 

The variability of size is illustrated by the following measure- 
ments. For the Kenya measurements I have to thank 
Dr. van Someren : — 

Pangani River. — Male 50 mm. 

Usambara. — Males 48 mm. (2 spec.) ; female 46 ; unsexed 45. 

Kenya.— Males 46 mm. (4 spec), 47 (5), 48 (2), 49 (5) ; females 
44 (5), 45 (2), 46 (4), 47 (2), 49 (1). 

Chloropetella suahelica Roberts must therefore be placed as 
a synonym of C. holochlorus (Erl.). 

The known distribution of C. holochorus is : from the Juba 
River, Italian Somaliland, to the Pugu Hills, south-west of 
Dar-es-Salaam, Tanganyika Territory. 

It appears to be confined to evergreen forest. 

(4) MESOPICOS GRISEOCEPHALTJS. 

In describing M. g. kilimensis from Kilimanjaro (Orn. 
Monatsber. xxxiv. 1926, p. 80), Neumann reviewed the other 
forms. He confined M. g. griseocephalus to Cape Colony, 
Transvaal, and Natal, but in M . g. ruwenzori included birds 
from Northern Angola, Kivu, Ruwenzori, Kambove, and 



13 [Vol. lvii. 

S.W. Tanganyika Territory (Mufindi, [M]beya, Neu Langen- 
burg, and the Livingstones). 

Bangs and Loveridge (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard, 
lxxv. 3, p. 182) call birds from Mufindi and Dabaga 
M. g. ruwenzori, evidently following Neumann. Lynes, on 
the other hand (J. Ornith. lxxxiii. Sondh.), places his specimens 
from the same localities as " near kilimensis. " They are 
on the average duller above and greener below than M . g. ruwen- 
zori, in this resembling M. g. kilimensis ; but, on the other 
hand, five out of his six adults have distinct red belly-patches, 
which are a feature of M . g. ruwenzori but not of M . g. kili- 
mensis. 

Sixteen specimens now in the British Museum Collection 
from Kilimanjaro and other mountains in Northern Tangany- 
ika fully support the characters claimed for M. g. kilimensis. 
None of their bills exceeds 24 mm. in length, and only one 
specimen (from North Pare) shows the faintest trace of red 
on the belly. From Uluguru no specimen of M . griseocephalus 
is available. Friedmann (Ibis, 1928, p. 83) has recorded 
an Uluguru bird as typical M . g. griseocephalus. This is 
inherently improbable, and as he adds that " the specimen 
has a shorter bill than other South African specimens, and the 
yellowish-olive on the breast is duller and more greenish," 
it is clear that the bird should be called M . g. kilimensis. 

It remains to mention two specimens in the British Museum 
Collection from Nyasaland (Ikawa and Livingstonia). These 
resemble M. g. ruwenzori in having more brightly golden 
upper parts than South African birds, but their red belly- 
patches are too poorly developed for them to be placed in that 
race without qualification. 

It appears that the distribution of the various forms may 
be redefined as follows : — 

M. g. griseocephalus (Bodd.) Tabl. PI. Enl. 1783, p. 49: 
Cape of Good Hope. 

Cape Colony, Transvaal and Natal. 

M . g. ruwenzori Sharpe, Bull. B. 0. C. xiii. 1902, p. 8 : 
Ruwenzori Mts. . 

Ruwenzori, Kivu, S.E. Belgian Congo, Northern Angola. 
S.W. Tanganyika birds are intermediate between this race and 



1" 1 {LbcM<^o< _ 



Vol. lvii.] 14 

the next. Nyasaland birds are nearest to M . g. ruwenzori, but 
show a tendency towards the South African M. g. griseocephalus. 

M. g. kilimensis Neumann, Orn. Monatsber. xxxiv. 1926, 
p. 80 : Kilimanjaro. 

Mt. Meru, Kilimanjaro, North and South Pare, Usambara, 
and Uluguru. 

Since this Woodpecker is confined to evergreen forest its 
range is essentially discontinuous. 

Mr. G. L. Bates sent the following four notes and descriptions 
of three new subspecies : — 

(1) On the Identity of Spizocorys eremica Reichenow & Peters. 
By the kindly help of Mr. Kinnear and the authorities 
of the Zoological Museum in Hamburg I have been able to 
see one of the two known specimens of this Lark, which were 
collected by Dr. C. Rathjens near San'a, in Yemen, and 
thus to compare it with the recently described Calandrella 
blanfordi philbyi (Bull. B. 0. C. lvi. p. 130). The result of 
the comparison is that while the new C. b. philbyi and Spizo- 
corys eremica are certainly much alike, if not identical, the 
extremely worn state of the plumage of the Hamburg specimen, 
the exact colour of which cannot be seen, makes it impossible 
at present to say that they are one and the same race (in 
which case its name would be Calandrella blanfordi eremica). 
This identity could only be established by more specimens 
from Yemen, which is far from the locality where the new 
C. b. philbyi was found. All Philby's specimens, which 
now include another adult and two spotted young received 
since the form was described, are from Ashaira or Rakba 
plain, both in the same district, a little north-east of Taif and 
Mecca. The spotted young birds, by their close resemblance 
to young of Calandrella brachydactila, confirm the placing of 
the new form and C. blanfordi in Calandrella. 

(2) On the Type-locality of Turturcena iriditorques (Cassin). 

To give this as " St. Paul's River, Gaboon," as is done by 
Sclater, ' Sy sterna Avium ^Ethiopicarum,' p. 163, and by others 
following him, is evidently a mistake. The only St. Paul's 
River in West Africa of which I can learn is in Liberia. The 



15 [Vol. lvii. 

type of Cassin's Golumba iriditorques, according to Witmer 
Stone in the Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1899, p. 36, 
was collected by MacDowell in West Africa, though in the 
original description specimens are mentioned both from 
MacDowell and from DuChaillu. To find out more about 
MacDowell and where he collected I have looked through 
the early volumes of the ' Philadelphia Proceedings,' where 
he is mentioned a number of times. The Hornbill named 
in 1847 Buceros albo-cristatus was " received several years 
since from Robert MacDowell, M.D., Surgeon attached to 
to the colonial government of Sierra Leone." Other birds 
collected by MacDowell are either said to be from " Western 
Africa " merely or from " St. Paul's River, western Africa," 
and this river is the only exact locality ever given for 
MacDowell's collections. As the name " Liberia " never 
occurs, that name was probably not then in use, and St. Paul's 
River was thought of as near Sierra Leone (as it really is). 
Sclater has " St. Paul's River, Liberia " for type-locality of 
Tropicranus albocristatus and Bseopogon indicator leucurus, 
and that of Turturcena iriditorques should be the same. Two 
other species discovered by MacDowell, Coracina azurea and 
Malimbus scutatus, were probably also from St. Paul's River, 
Liberia, though only " Sierra Leone " is mentioned. Gaboon is, 
of course, far away, in a different avifaunal division of Africa. 

(3) On certain Genera of Woodpeckers. 

These notes are published in order to preserve some results 
of a rather long and detailed investigation made when con- 
sidering the new genus Desertipicus (Bull. B. O. C. lv. p. 156). 

We deal here only with certain genera which are hard to 
separate from others, leaving aside all the Woodpeckers with 
characters of bill and toes by which they may easily be dis- 
tinguished from the more typical or perfect Woodpeckers, 
as well as those with certain other obvious structural peculiari- 
ties. The ones we are dealing with may be called the Perfect 
Woodpeckers, characterized by a very straight hard and 
strong bill with parallel stiffening ridges on the upper surface 
situated far aside from the culmen, and a great development 
of the backward-projecting fourth toe for opposition to the 



Vol. lvii.l 16 

forward toes in the act of clinging, so that this fourth one is 
the longest of the toes. 

The vast number of species comprising the " Perfect Wood- 
peckers " are found throughout both the Palsearctic and the 
Nearctic Regions, and also in the Tropics. Those inhabiting 
the Temperate Zone in both the Old and the New World 
must, for the most part, be put in the one genus Dry abates. 
No structural characters can be found to separate this great 
genus into smaller natural groups because of the presence of 
intergradations, as in size, length of bill, length of wing, etc. 
So attempts to divide up Dryobates according to colour- 
patterns, such as white spots or bars or white head-markings, 
or red in different parts, are defeated by intergradations and 
by the irregularity of the combinations of different patterns. 
Even for the genus Yungipicus no consistent characters can be 
found, so that the species put in it have to go also in 
Dryobates. 

But colours form a better ground for separation than 
colour-patterns (in these birds), and there are certain Perfect 
Woodpeckers, structurally just like Dryobates, which con- 
stitute distinct genera because their colouring is quite different 
from that characteristic of Dryobates, which is always black 
or blackish with various white markings, and always with 
white spots on the wings. Such differently coloured Perfect 
Woodpeckers are Leiopicus maharattensis and Hypopicus 
hyperyihrus in India, the American Xenopicus and JSphyra- 
picus, and the new Arabian Desertipicus. 

The Perfect Woodpeckers of the Ethiopian Region also 
can be separated from Dryobates by colour alone. They have 
a characteristic golden-green colour, of which no trace is ever 
found in Dryobates. In some species this green colour is but 
a slight tinge ; but it is a curious fact that in every species 
with the feathers of the back only slightly green this is 
compensated for, as it were, by conspicuous bright golden- 
yellow shafts to the tail-feathers, while these shafts are black 
or dark wherever the back is bright green. 

This colouring alone would be a good character on which 
to found an Ethiopian genus Dendropicos to include all the 
species usually included in Dendropicos, Mesopicos, and 



17 [Vol. lvii. 

Thripias. But there is not the same difficulty in finding 
other consistent characters than colour to divide up this 
assemblage of species. For we may define Dendropicos 
as small green Perfect Woodpeckers with short tails, never 
more than about half as long as the wing ; Mesopicos as larger, 
with tail two-thirds as long as the wing ; and Thripias as 
the largest Ethiopian Woodpeckers, with particularly long and 
strong bills. The species included in Dendropicos are lafresnayi, 
fuscescens, abyssinicus, lugubris, gabonicus, poecilold&mus, 
elachus, and stierlingi ; those in Mesopicos, goertse, griseo- 
cephalus, elliotii, and johnstoni ; those in Thripias, namaquus, 
pyrrhogaster , and xantholophus (these last two thus taken 
out of Mesopicos). 

The statement that the Perfect Woodpeckers of Africa can 
be separated by colour from Dryobates has to be modified by 
an exception, the species obsoletus, with no green in its plumage. 
It will have to be called Dryobates obsoletus. While most, if 
not all, of the other genera of Woodpeckers are confined each 
to one of the great Zoogeographical Regions, Dryobates already, 
even without obsoletus, is found in at least three. 



(4) On interesting Birds recently sent to the British Museum 
from Arabia by Mr. H. St. J. B. Philby. 

In returning to Arabia a year ago Mr. Philby, travelling 
by motor-car, entered the country from the north, going 
through Sakaka, and thence to Hail and home to Jidda. 
On the way he got, besides many kinds of birds already 
collected by him in Arabia, two Larks for the first time : — 

Alauda arvensis intermedia, at Sakaka and Abal Rawath. 
Eremophila alpestris bilopha, at Mistawi (about 26° N. and 
46° E.). 

The Sky-Lark had *been obtained in Arabia before only by 
Cheesman at Hufuf ; the Horned Lark, though first discovered 
at Aqaba, had not since been reported from Arabia proper. 

At Jidda in December Mr. Philby got two shore birds not 
previously obtained there, Limosa lapponica lapponica and 
Arenaria interpres. 



Vol. lvii.] 18 

In the Wadi Fatima-Mecca-Taif district he got, in the 
early months of the current year (1936), besides the Accipiter 
brevipes reported in this 'Bulletin' (lvi. p. 131), the following 
birds not previously obtained in that part of Arabia : — 

Fringillaria striolata striolata. 

Fringillaria tahapisi arabica. 

Prinia gracilis (subsp. ?). 

Acrocephalus schoenobsenus. 

Caprimulgus nubicus tamaricis. 

Locustella fluviatilis. Two specimens at Ashaira on May 6. 
The River-Warbler had not been before recorded from 
Arabia, but had been found once in Asia Minor, once in 
Palestine, and once in Iraq — in every case in May. 

But the discoveries listed above are surpassed in interest 
by some contained in a small lot received only last August. 
These were obtained on a hasty trip of only three weeks, 
the course of which, as can be inferred from the dates and 
localities on the labels,was from Jidda, first eastward to Khurma, 
then south-east and south to Ranya and Bisha, then on south 
into Asir, ending in the mountains (the highest in Arabia) 
near Abha. Following is a list of the more important species 
from this trip : — 

Pseudacanthis yemenensis. 

Anthus sordidus arabicus. 

Parisoma buryi. 

These three were all collected at Suda (alt. 9250 ft.) on 
June 9. They were all discovered as new by Bury in the 
mountains of Yemen (see account by Sclater in ' The Ibis,' 
1917, p. 129), and none of them had since been collected by 
anyone else. Of the Parisoma Bury got only one specimen, 
and Philby's is the second. 

Saxicola torquata. A spotted young Stonechat secured 
at Suda, also on June 9, that must belong to a resident race 
(see p. 20). 

Hirundo daurica scullii. Same place and date. Mr. Philby 
had got this Swallow before in the Taif district ; but here in 
Asir he records evidence that proves it to be resident and 
breeding. 



19 [Vol. Ivii. 

Otus senegalensis subsp. An adult Scops Owl of this species 
and three young ones with some down on the tips of their 
feathers were brought by Arabs to Mr. Philby at Dailami, in 
Wadi Bisha, " from neighbouring rocky ridges," on May 26, 
thus proving this to be a resident breeding species in Arabia. 
An examination of the specimens of Scops Owl from Arabia 
in the British Museum, which have all been identified as 
0. scops scops, shows that while those from Muscat, Aden, 
and near Sulaiyil are undoubtedly correctly identified (and 
migrants there), one collected by Bury in the Amiri district 
is, like the recent ones from Philby, 0. senegalensis. 

Chlidonias leucoptera. Khaibar, June 1. This is the first 
record of the White-winged Black Tern in Arabia. 

Burhinus capensis dodsoni. Sha'ib Shid, June 1. This is 
the farthest north record for this bird, which was first dis- 
covered near Aden. 

Streptopelia lugens. Two specimens, Sha'ib Hanjur, on 
June 2, and Suda on June 9. This is the first published 
record of this Abyssinian species of Turtle-Dove in Arabia, 
but I have been informed from the Hamburg Museum that there 
is a specimen there from San'a, in Yemen. 

Alectoris grseca philbyi. A specimen from near Abha, also 
eggs, and the note, " plentiful in all the Asir Mts." 

Pica pica asirensis. The Magpie described herewith as a new 
race (see below). 

Pica pica asirensis, subsp. nov. 

Description. — A rather large race of the Magpie, with bill 
large and feet also notably large and strong. Back and 
rump entirely black ; flanks black, or with the white of the 
breast reaching them only a little way. Blue of the wings 
very dark ; tip portion of the inner remiges greenish- black 
(no bronze sheen on the wing). Middle tail-feathers too 
badly worn to be described ; the other rectrices, which are 
new, black, with only a little dark blue gloss, and their outer 
margins dull bronzy brown. 

Type.— Collected by H. St. J. B. Philby (no. 1309) at 
Sahra, in the mountains of Asir, at an altitude of 7500 ft., 



Vol. lvii.] 20 

on June 10, 1936. Sexed as $, and undoubtedly a bird lately 
breeding. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1936.8.8.1. 

Measurements of the type. — Wing 225 mm. (or a trifle more, 
as the tip is worn) ; culmen from skull 48, from front edge 
of nostril 30 ; tail 245; tarsus 52. 

Remarks. — There is also another specimen, " $," secured 
on the same day. They were brought to Mr. Philby by Arabs, 
who brought also four young Magpies from a nest. On one. 
label is, "Quite plentiful in the juniper forests, which begin 
at 7500 feet," and on the other, " Outside juniper zone in 
valley of plentiful acacias. They occur up to the summit 
of the Asir Mountains at 9250 feet." 

Saxicola torquata felix, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Second remex always shorter than the 
seventh, sometimes much shorter. General colour of male 
very black-looking because of the narrowness of the light 
edging to the black feathers, even in December and January, 
whereas in 8. t. rubicola and the other palsearctic races the 
light edges are then still wide and little abraded. Tail-feathers 
also with scarcely any light edging. Axillaries and under 
wing- coverts almost black, with little white edging. Chestnut 
patch on the breast circumscribed, with pure white at the sides 
of the breast and on the abdomen. Upper tail- coverts 
(the few of them that remain in these specimens) with blackish 
shaft-streaks, as in rubicola, but apparently not so wide. 

Type. — Male, collected by G. W. Bury, Menacha (Manakha), 
in Yemen (alt. 7000-8000 ft.), January 25, 1913. Brit. Mus. 
Reg. no. 1913.7.18.29. 

Measurements of the type. — Wing 66 mm. ; tail 50; tarsus 21. 

Remarks. — Seven males have a wing-length of from 65 to 
68 mm., oftenest 66 ; four females, oftenest 63. All these 
eleven specimens were collected at the same place, the name 
of which is correctly spelled Manakha, two in December, the 
rest in January. All are alike in state of plumage, which 
is nearly new, or at least not greatly worn. (Thus this race 
resembles some found in tropical Africa which never have 
very much light edging to the black feathers.) Sclater listed 



21 [Vol. lvii. 

them in his paper (Ibis, 1917, p. 165) as 8. r. maura, but in 
his ' Systema Avium ^Ethiopicarum ' he put them under 
8. t. rubicola. In the box with these specimens is a pencil 
note by Rear- Admiral Lynes: "Almost certainly resident . . . 
not maura — vide all black tail-feathers and sedentary wing- 
formula." I first supposed them to be migrant 8. t. rubicola, 
and mentioned them as that in my paper (Ibis, 1936, p. 709). 
I am now convinced that they belong to a resident race, 
and that the young bird recently sent by Mr. Philby from the 
mountains of Asir, mentioned above, is a specimen of it, 
hatched there last spring. 

But it must be added that the two specimens of S. t. rubicola 
mentioned in my paper as collected by Mr. Philby at Riyadh 
on November 6 are 8. t. rubicola, which winters in Arabia, 
as it does in Egypt and Iraq. 8. t. felix is doubtless confined 
to the high mountains of S.W. Arabia. 

Scotocerca inquieta grisea, subsp. nov. 

Description. — General colour dark and greyish, much 
darker than the typical race, which also is found in Arabia, 
and with the dark streaks, which in that are mostly confined 
to the head, extending to the back, and the streaks on the 
breast also extending farther down. In the heavy and ex- 
tensive streaking this form is like 8. i. buryi from the south- 
western corner of Arabia, but the general colour of that is 
warm brown, while this is greyish. 

Type.— Collected by H. St. J. B. Philby (no. 625) at Mafraq 
Buraim, on the eastern edge of the Taif Plateau( alt. 4000 ft.), 
on November 16, 1934. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1935.1.5.289. 

Measurements of the type. — Wing 51*5 mm. ; culmen from 
skull 12 ; tail 53 ; tarsus 20. 

Remarks. — The type is one of the three Mafraq Buraim 
specimens, shot at three different times in the year, which 
I mentioned in 'The Ibis ' (1936, p. 694). Mr. Philby had 
collected the typical race in another part of Arabia, and 
has since sent some formalin specimens from Ashaira, which 
seem to agree with the typical race. The new race must 
be very local. 



Vol. lvii.] 22 

Mr. W. L. Sclater sent the following note on the genus 
Calamornis : — 

In 1920 (Bull. B. 0. C. xlvii. p. 118) I proposed a new genus, 
under the name Calamornis, for a series of Reed- or Swamp- 
Warblers inhabiting the greater part of the Ethiopian Region. 
Dr. Meise of Dresden now very courteously writes to me that 
this name is preoccupied by Calamornis Gould (' Birds of 
Asia,' iii. text to plate 73, 1874), the type of which is Para- 
doxornis heudei, a Chinese bird belonging to the family 
Timaliidse. When proposing the new genus I consulted 
Waterhouse's Index and Scudder, and in neither of these is 
Gould's name recorded, but it is to be found in the more 
recently published ' Nomenclator ' now being issued by the 
Prussian Academy of Science. This must be my excuse 
for my error in using a preoccupied name. 

As Dr. Meise hopes that I will rename the genus in order 
that it may appear in his ' Fortschritte ' containing lists of 
new genera of birds recently published, which will appear in 
the Report of the last (Oxford) International Congress held 
in 1934, I now propose that the name shall be altered to 

Calamcecetor, gen. nom. nov., 

with type Calamodyta brevipennis Keulemans, as before. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following note on the type-locality of Columba guinea 
Linnaeus : — 

The type-locality of this pigeon is based on Linnseus's 
reference to Edwards's 'Birds,' ii. pi. 75, 1747, who states his 
plate was drawn from a pair of birds belonging to the Duke of 
Richmond and were said to have come from " the inland 
parts of Guinea in Africa." We cannot find that a more 
definite type-locality than Guinea has been suggested, and it 
seems desirable that this should now be done. 

The name Guinea was apparently originally confined to 
that part of the west coast of Africa from Cape Nun, southern 
Morocco, to some point not very far south, for it was not 



23 [Vol. lvii. 

until the 15th century that it was extended south to Senegal. 
This place name came into general use in Europe in the 
15th century, and at one time included the west coast of 
Africa from Cape Nun, southern Morocco, to Cape Negro, 
southern Portuguese Angola. More recently it was restricted 
to three areas : northern or upper Guinea from the Casamance 
River to the Niger Delta, middle Guinea being Cameroon, 
and southern or lower Guinea from Gabun to Loango. The 
known distribution of the Speckled Pigeon is from Senegal 
and Gambia eastwards through the inland areas of West 
Africa to Eastern Africa, and it is again found in Portuguese 
Angola, where Bocage obtained it at Huilla and Capangombe 
in the Mossamedes area, as we are informed by Dr. Frade, 
under date January 25, 1936, that the Capangombe specimen 
has a pale silver-grey rump, and that the Huilla specimen 
is no longer in the collection. 

Brisson, Orn. i. 1760, p. 132 ; Buffon, Av. ii. 1771, p. 538 ; 
and Latham, Syn. ii. (2) 1783, p. 639, no. 32, all give southern 
parts of Guinea ; Gmelin, S. N. ii. 1788, p. 774, no. 16, and 
Latham, Ind. Orn. ii. 1790, p. 602, no. 35, give South Africa, 
and Temminck, Hist. Nat. Pig. et Gall. i. 1813, pp. 214, 462, 
gives Coasts of Guinea. There has clearly been some divergence 
of opinion as to what part of Guinea this pigeon was supposed 
to inhabit ; but we must base our type-locality on the one 
reference given by Linnaeus. Edwards's figure is that of the 
northern (C. g. guinea), and not southern race (C. g. phoeonotus). 
As the published literature gives us only Guinea or southern 
Guinea, and the bird occurs in both areas from Senegal to 
Angola, except for the equatorial forest area, the Duke of 
Richmond's specimen may have come from anywhere on the 
West African coast ; but we think it safe to presume that it 
came from northern Guinea, and not southern Guinea, and we 
therefore suggest that the exact type-locality of Columba 
guinea guinea Linnaeus be fixed as Senegal, West Africa, 
this being not only within the ancient Guinea, but the most 
western locality where the bird is still found. 



Vol. lvii.J 24 

Mr. Gregory M. Mathews sent the following description 
of a new form of the Little-blue Petrel, and some remarks 
on the occurrence of the Kermadec Petrel in England. 

Alphapuffinus assimilis glauerti, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Differs from A. a. tunnyi in having smaller 
average measurements. 

Distribution. — Rottnest Island to Houtman's Abrolhos, 
South-west Australia. 

Type.— No. A.2901 in the Perth Museum. Collected by 
Mr. L. Glauert at Cottesloe, Western Australia. 

Measurements. — Wing 180, culmen 24, tail 65, tarsus 36-5, 
middle toe and claw 41 mm. 

Remarks. — The measurements of six specimens of A. a. tunnyi 
are as follows :— Wing 175-182 (179), culmen 25-26 (25-1), 
tail 66-69-5 (68), tarsus 36-39-5 (37-3), middle toe and claw 
43-43-5 (43-1) mm., while the measurements of ten specimens 
of A. a. glauerti are :— Wing 167-180 (174-9), culmen 23-24 
(23-5), tail 63-71 (66-6), tarsus 36-39 (36-9), middle toe and 
claw 39-42 (40-8) mm. 

In A. a. tunnyi the culmen is 25 mm. or over ; middle toe 
and claw 43 mm. or over. The webs are yellowish, feet 
blue. 

In A. a. glauerti the culmen is under 25 mm. ; middle toe 
and claw under 43 mm. ; eyes dark brown ; feet dark bluish- 
horn, webs white or cream shot with neutral ; bill bluish-horn 
or bluish-grey, culmen black. The axillaries are not generally 
all white, some of the feathers have dark grey on one web. 
In birds of the year the " bloom " on the feathers of the upper 
surface is more noticeable than in the old and matured birds. 
In younger birds the feathers on the sides and back of the 
neck are fringed with white. In adults the bill is thinner 
and shorter than in A . a. tunnyi, and the feathers immediately 
over the bill seem greyer than the corresponding part in 
A. a. tunnyi. 

In ' The Emu,' April 2, 1935, vol. xxxiv. pt. 4, p. 314, 
Robinson says that A. a. glauerti breeds on Parrakeet Island, 
Rottnest Islands, between September 8 to 10. The nests 
were made of sticks and seaweed, and were situated under 



25 [Vol. lvii. 

a ledge of rock, or in burrows. The young resembled black 
chickens and were very fat. 

The eggs measured 55-9 by 33-5 and 55-6 by 34 mm., and 
two of the broad form 51-7 by 35-5 and 51-2 by 36 mm. 
Average, 53-6 by 34-7 mm. 

Hall (Ibis, April 1902, p. 206) says that eggs were found 
in July on the Pelsart Group, Houtman's Abrolhos. 

Pterodroma neglecta. 

When discussing the occurrence of this bird in England 
in ' The Ibis ' for 1914, p. 435, Iredale stressed the difference 
in the colour of the primary shafts of P. neglecta and P. armin- 
joniana, facts well known, but not fully appreciated. He also 
noted that while P. arminjoniana had dusky shafts, and 
P. neglecta white shafts, immature specimens of the Kermadec 
Island bird also had dusky shafts. At what age do they 
turn white ? 

Of two specimens of Pterodroma neglecta collected on Rapa 
Island, Tubuai Islands (or Austral Group) on April 17, 1925, 
one is typical P. neglecta and the other typical P. arminjoniana. 

The first caught alive measures : wing 302, tail 100, culmen 
29-5, tarsus 40, middle toe and claw 54 mm. In this bird 
the shafts of the primaries are white only at the base ; the 
shafts of the tail-feathers are also white for the basal half. 
The exposed under -portions of the primaries are not so 
extensively white as in P. neglecta, but resemble in this respect 
P. arminjoniana. Iris brown, bill black, legs dark, feet 
nearly black. 

The other specimen, a male collected at the same time and 
place as the above, measures : wing 291, tail 106, culmen 30, 
tarsus 36, middle toe and claw 50 mm. This bird is darker 
on the undersurface than the other, the feet being parti- coloured. 
The shafts of the primaries are white, and the exposed under- 
portions of the primaries are extensively white as in true 
P. neglecta. Iris dark brown, bill black, legs pale grey, feet 
with the first phalanx grey, the remainder of the toes 
black. 

In ' The Ibis,' April 1936, p. 377, the colour of the shafts 
of P. arminjoniana is said to be white ; this is a mis-statement. 



Vol. lvii.] 26 

Mr. C. M. N. White sent the following notes : — 

(1) HlRUNDO TAHITICA NEOXENA. 

Careful study of this bird indicates that three races exist 
in Australia, one of which is unnamed, whilst the characters 
of another have hitherto been wrongly defined : — 

Hirundo tahitica neoxena Gould (Bds. Australia, pt. 9, 1842 : 
Tasmania). 

From the type-locality I have seen only a single adult, 
but this agrees perfectly with a series from the Adelaide 
district and others from Victoria. All these birds are charac- 
terized by their large size, usually well- developed white tail- 
spots, and by having the under surf ace only slightly whitish 
on the centre of the abdomen. 

Measurements of eighteen birds. — Wing 113—118 mm. (once 
121), outer tail-feather 77-84 (once 76), bill from anterior 
edge of nostril 5-5-5 mm. 

Birds from New South Wales show a tendency towards the 
Queensland race, but are clearly better treated as neoxena. 

Measurements of six birds. — Wing 112-115, tail (70) 77- 
83 mm. 

Status. — In Tasmania mainly a summer breeding visitor. 
In Victoria and New South Wales present throughout the 
year, but probably a proportion outside the breeding season 
are migrants. Mr. W. B. Alexander furnishes the following 
notes upon Queensland : — " In the Brisbane district flocks were 
present throughout the year, including times when others, 
apparently, were breeding there. At Rockhampton flocks 
were noted June-August and again October-November, 
when local birds were breeding. At Cairns flocks were noted 
in August-September. There are also records of the bird 
from Cape York and the Gulf of Carpentaria as non-breeding 
visitors." 

It should be noted that I have seen no examples from 
Queensland which belong to H . t. neoxena, but the indubitable 
nature of the above records makes it highly probable that the 
form occurs in that state in winter. At any rate, the migratory 
habit of the species must not be overlooked, though it is clearly 
not so powerful a migrant as Petrochelidon nigricans. 



27 [Vol. lvii. 

Hirundo tahitica carteri (Mathews) (Nov. Zool. xviii. 1912, 
p. 300 : Broome Hill, S.W. Australia). 

This form was originally described as having a paler throat, 
but this is evidently due merely to wearing However, it may 
be upheld on the strength of its usually shorter tail with 
generally less marked white spots and because of its undoubtedly 
stronger bill — in the latter respect linking the Australian 
Swallows of the H. tahitica group with H. javonica, in which 
the bill is still larger. 

Measurements of nine birds. — Wing 112-119, tail 72-76, 
80, 81, bill (5-5) 6-6-5 mm. 

Available information seems to show that this race is resident 
in W. Australia, ranging north to King River, Bernies Island, 
and Point Cloates. Eastward its range is uncertain. Recorded 
breeding October-November. 

Hirundo tahitica parsoni, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Differs from H. t. neoxena in being much 
smaller, undersurface very much more extensively white in 
centre, perhaps less white on tail. 

Measurements of nine birds. — Wing 107-112, tail 69-72 
(once 75), bill 4-5 mm. 

Type. — In the British Museum, <$ ad., Bart le Frere, Queens- 
land, 30. v. 1900. Reg. no. 1901.3.20.85. 

Six in the British Museum are from Bart le Frere, Thursday 
Island, and Mount Hutton. There are records of breeding 
on Keppel Island (' Emu,' xxiv. p. 245) and about Cairns, 
Mackay, and Rockhampton. Breeding dates kindly furnished 
by Mr. Alexander for Cairns and Rockhampton are October- 
November, when there were also present flocks presumed to 
be H. t. neoxena. 

Named after Mr. F. E. Parsons of Adelaide, to whom I am 
indebted for a small series from that locality which has greatly 
facilitated this revision. 

(2) Petroica vittata (Quoy & Gaimard) (Voy. de l'Astrol., 
Zool. i. 1830, p. 173 : King George Sound — error 
= Tasmania). 
In examining a series of this species it was evident that there 

was considerable individual variation, and both races described 



Vol. lvii.] 28 

required confirmation. Dr. E. Mayr kindly sent the following 
note upon Amauro&ryas vittata bassi Mathews (Austral Av. 
Rec. ii. p. 92 : Barren Island) : — 

" The type of A. v. bassi is a very dark bird and has the 
amount of white on the wing reduced, but two others from 
Barren Island and two from Flinders Island are quite indistin- 
guishable from Tasmanian specimens. It seems best to regard 
A. v. bassi as a synonym of P. vittata" 

Petroica vittata kingi (Mathews) (Austral Av. Rec. ii. p. 92 : 
King Island). 

Notes kindly furnished by Dr. Mayr on birds in Mathew's 
collection and by Mr. Mack on others in Melbourne show that 
nine birds from this locality are all more olive -brownish above 
and particularly more brown on the ventral surface in compari- 
son with Tasmanian birds, and the race is quite valid. 



Corrigendum to Volume LVI. 

P. iii, line 14, for Mr. P. F. Bunyard's Remarks on the nesting of 
Pied Wagtails in glass-houses read Mr. P. F. Bunyard's Remarks on the 
gregarious roosting of Pied Wagtails in glass-houses. 



NOTICES . 

The next Meeting of the Club will be held on Wednesday, 
November 11, 1936, at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, 
S.W. 7. The Dinner at 7 p.m. 

Members intending to dine must inform the Hon. Secretary, 
Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson, 16 Tregunter Road, S.W. 10, 
on the post-card sent out before the Meeting. 



29 [Vol. lvii. 

Members who wish to make any communication at the 
next Meeting of the Club should give notice to the Editor, 
Capt. C. H. B. Grant, 58a Ennismore Gardens, S.W. 7. The 
titles of their contributions will then appear on the Agenda 
published before the Meeting. All MSS. for publication in 
the ' Bulletin ' must be given to the Editor before or at the 
Meeting. 



Agenda. 

1. The Chairman will deliver his Annual Address. 

2. Dr. W. Rowan will show some slides of Canadian birds. 

3. Mr. P. F. Bunyard will exhibit some uncommon eggs from 

Alberta, Canada, brought home by Dr. W. Rowan. 






BULLETIN 



.,>' 



OF THE 






X 



BRITISH 0RNITH0L0GISTS , CLUB 



No. CCCXCIX, 



The three-hundred-and-ninety-fourth Meeting of the Club was 
held at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on 
Wednesday, November 11, 1936. 

Chairman : Mr. G. M. Mathews. 

Members present : — W. B. Alexander ; E. C. Stuart 
Baker ; D. A. Bannerman ; Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; 
Mrs. R. G. Barnes ; F. J. P. Barrington ; P. F. Bunyard ; 
Hon. G. L. Charteris ; H. P. O. Cleave ; Miss E. M. God- 
man ; Col. A. E. Hamerton ; Dr. J. M. Harrison ; R. E. 
Heath ; Dr. E. Hopkinson ; Dr. K. Jordan ; Rev. F. C. R. 
Jourdain ; N. B. Kinnear ; Miss E. P. Leach ; Miss C. 
Longfield ; Dr. G. Carmichael Low ; J. M. D. Mackenzie ; 
C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; Mrs. C. D. Mttrton ; T. H. 
Newman ; E. M. Nicholson ; C. Oldham ; B. B. Osmaston ; 
Miss D. Peall ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; D. Seth-Smith (Vice- 
Chairman) ; Major A. G. L. Sladen (Hon. Treas.) ; Miss D. L. 
Taylor ; Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson (Hon. Sec.) ; 
B. W. Tucker ; Miss E. L. Turner ; Mrs. H. W. Boyd 
Watt ; C. M. N. White ; C. G. M. de Worms. 

Quest of the Club : — Dr. W. Rowan. 

Quests : — J. S. Dyson ; Dr. Fudakowski ; Mrs. C. Hawkes ; 
R. S. Jenyns ; Miss L. Lodge ; Mrs. Mackworth-Praed ; 
K. B. Rooke ; Dr. and Mrs. H. Rowan ; J. E. Scott. 

Members of the Club, 38 ; Guest of the Club, 1 ; Guests, 10. 
[November 30, 1936. J a vol. lvii. 



Vol. lvii.] 32 

The Chairman, Mr. G. M. Mathews, gave his Annual 
Address. 

Chairman's Address. 

Since the last Annual Address the British Ornithologists' 
Union has lost by death two Honorary Members : M. A. 
Menzbier and K. Lambrecht ; three Foreign Members : F. E. 
Blaauw, L. Lavauden, and O. Reiser ; and the following 
Ordinary Members : H. G. Barclay, J. McL. Marshall, 
H. S. Snell, J. I. S. Whitaker, and J. Sladen Wing; former 
Members of the Union were A. McL. Marshall, the Rev. H. H. 
Slater, A. Thorburn, and Lt.-Col. Delme-RadclifFe ; while at 
home A. Patterson, and abroad P. K. Koslov and H. S. 
Swarth, have also passed away. 

The transfer of the British Museum Ornithological Collection 
to its new quarters was carried out successfully during the 
past year. Dr. L. C. Sanford presented on behalf of the 
American Museum of Natural History the types of fifteen 
species of British birds from the Tring Collection to the 
British Museum. Dr. Sanford was entertained at a dinner 
by British Ornithologists organized by Col. R. Meinertzhagen. 

In recognition of his services to Ornithology in general, and 
his monumental Cisticola review in particular, the Godman- 
Salvin medal in gold was presented to Rear- Admiral H. 
Lynes by the President of the Union, Mr. H. F. Witherby, 
at the October dinner of the B. O. C. 

Mr. E. C. Stuart Baker's collection of Indian birds-eggs, in 
which about 1960 different forms are represented, has been 
presented to the British Museum. This does not include the 
Cuckoo -egg collection, which was previously purchased by the 
Museum. 

The British Trust for Ornithology has been conducting 
enquiries into the food of the Little Owl, the status of the 
Woodcock and the Swallow, and we understand that part 
of the proceeds of the Grey Memorial Fund will also be devoted 
to the Trust. Mr. D. A. Bannerman will represent the B. O. U. 
on the Oxford University Committee. 



33 [Vol. lvii. 

Regional Review (October 1935 to October 1936). 

Arctic. 

The Oxford University Expedition which left England in 
the autumn of 1935 spent the winter in North East Land, 
and returned early in September 1936 to this country. 
Mr. D. B. Keith accompanied the expedition as ornithologist, 
a,nd is, we understand, preparing a paper on the Birds of 
North East Land which should be of interest, as no English 
ornithologist has wintered there before. Mrs. R. G. Taylor 
spent a month at Bruce City (Klaas Billen Bay, W. Spits- 
bergen) in July and August, and made some interesting notes 
on the birds observed there. 

Messrs. C. G. and E. G. Bird have joined the Norwegian 
Greenland Expedition, and intend spending the winter in 
N.E. Greenland. 

Mr. A. Morrison spent about six weeks in July and August 
in north-east Iceland. 

Mr. D. Haig -Thomas was at Myvatn during the summer. 

Europe. 

Major W. M. Congreve and Mr. G. Tomkinson worked 
part of East Finmark again during the summer. 

Dr. H. M. S. Blair explored part of S. Central Norway, 
on which little previous work has been done. Messrs. J. J. B. 
Young, P. W. Boughton Leigh, and J. L. Chaworth 
Musters were in West Central Norway about the same time. 

Finland was visited by Mr. E. C. Stuart Baker and Brig.- 
Gen. R. M. Betham ; also by Lt.-Col. R. F. Meiklejohn, 
H. J. R. Pease, Miss M. Barclay, and others who stayed 
on the island of Hailuoto (Karlo) in the Gulf of Bothnia. 
Mr. C. H. Wells also paid a brief visit to S. Finland. 
Mr. J. H. McNeile was in Esthonia, and subsequently also 
in Scandinavia. 

Mr. H. Whistler spent a month in Poland and the Rev. 
F. C. R. Jourdain visited Hungary under the auspices of the 
R. Hung. Orn. Institute in May and June. Miss CM. Acland 
paid a visit to Poland, 

e»2 



Vol. lvii.] 34 

In the Mediterranean Mr. B. W. Tucker paid a visit to 
Corsica in the late summer, but no news has been received from 
Capt. P. W. Munn since the outbreak of the Civil War in Spain. 
Mr. C. W. N. White traversed most of the island of Crete 
during the early autumn. 

Asia. 

Mr. H. St. J. B. Philby has continued his collecting in 
Arabia, and three new subspecies have been described by 
Mr. G. L. Bates from his collections. 

Mr. R. H. Greaves has published some interesting notes 
on Egyptian bird life recently. 

Africa. 

Lt.-Col. R. F. Meinertzhagen visited the Kenya High- 
lands in spring, and passed through Egypt on his way north. 

Mr. D. A. Bannerman was in Tangier and Marocco in 
March, and Mr. F. J. F. Barrington in Tunisia in January. 

The Rev. A. H. Paget Wilkes is still working at the 
' Birds of Uganda,' but expects to return to England before 
long. 

Rear-Admiral H. Lynes has left for South Africa to con- 
tinue his researches on the bird-life there. 

America. 

Sir C. F. Belcher paid a short visit to N. Patagonia, and 
will be leaving Trinidad in the near future. He has for some 
years past been studying the bird- life of Trinidad with 
Mr. Smooker. 

Mr. J. Armitage spent three months in the West Indies, 
chiefly in Jamaica. 

Mr. B. G. Harrison made a short trip to Uruguay and S.E. 
Brazil, where he collected a series of eggs of the Shiny Cowbird 
of South America {Molothrus b. bonariensis). 

Literature. 
We understand that work has been begun upon a new 
edition of the ' Practical Handbook,' to be edited and 
published by Mr. H. F. Witherby. 



35 [Vol. lvii. 

The Misses L. J. Rintoul and E. V. Baxter published an 
excellent work entitled 'A Vertebrate Fauna of Forth,' and 
the Rev. J. M. McWilliam has also brought out a work on 
' The Birds of the Firth of Clyde.' 

Mr. F. N. Chasen has given us ' A Handlist of Malaysian 
Birds : a systematic list of the birds of the Malay Peninsula, 
Sumatra, Borneo, and Java.' He has also published vol. iii. 
of the late H. C. Robinson's ' Birds of the Malay Peninsula.' 
Dr. O. Helms has added a little to our knowledge of the 
life-history of Linnaeus in a paper entitled " Linne som Natur- 
forsker og Laege," published in the ' Naturens Verden,' 1935. 

Dr. E. Mayr continues the publication of the " Whitney 
South Sea Expedition " series of papers in the Amer. Mus. 
Novitates, nos. 814 and 820. 

Dr. A. Wetmore has published part xiii. of Kirke Swann's 
' Monograph of the Birds of Prey.' 

Dr. G. P. Dementiev has completed the first volume of 
his ' Systema Avium Rossicarum.' 

Dr. R. Cushman Murphy has written a two-volume work on 
the ' Ocean Birds of South America ' containing 86 plates, 
14 of which are coloured. 

Dr. C. E. Hellmayr has published part ix. of his ' Catalogue 
of Birds of the Americas.' 

Messrs. A. B. Steullet and E. A. Deautier are the 
authors of ' Catalogo sistmatico de las Aves de la Republico 
Argentina,' published by the Museo de la Plata. 

Mr. D. A. Bannerman has published the fourth volume 
of his work ' The Birds of Tropical West Africa.' 

Prince Taka-Tsukasa has brought volume i. of his ' Birds 
of Nippon ' a little nearer completion by the publication of 
part 5. 

My Supplement to the ' Birds of Norfolk and Lord Howe 
Island ' has been published. 

In conclusion, I have to thank the Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain 
for kindly helping me in compiling the data to this address. 

Dr. Karl Jordan made a statement regarding the Inter- 
national Committee on Zoological Nomenclature, intimating 
the appointment of Mr. Francis Hemming, a British entom- 
ologist, as the new Secretary. 



Vol. lvii.] 36 

Dr. William Rowan, University of Alberta, showed a 
series of sixty excellent slides illustrating the bird-life of the 
Alberta muskegs, with special reference to species included 
in the British List, and made the following remarks : — 

Muskegs may be roughly defined as bogs of varying depth 
and wetness that occur across the whole breadth of northern 
Canada at irregular intervals, ranging in size from a few 
hundred yards across to many miles. Because collectors 
have always found them unpleasant they have been largely 
avoided, and comparatively little is known of their fauna. 
The area specifically dealt with lies to the south of Lesser 
Slave Lake. 

Five species received particular attention, as follows : — 

The Solitary Sandpiper (Tringa solitaria), a common breeder 
on the west side of the Athabasca River, but unaccountably 
scarce on the eastern. Both subspecies have been collected, 
but the western is apparently the regular breeding form. 
The species uses the old nests of other birds for the deposition 
of its eggs, the commonest nests used being those of the 
American Robin, Rusty Blackbird, and Wax wing. 

The Red- breasted Snipe or Dowitcher (Limnodromus 
griseus hendersoni), a subspecies of L. g. griseus, originally 
recognized and described by the speaker, breeds generally in 
small numbers. In habits it is rather secretive and incon- 
spicuous and is never actually abundant. During incubation 
the female only officiates, although the male is constantly in 
attendance. As soon as the eggs are hatched the female 
deserts the family, and the rearing of the young is undertaken 
entirely by the male. The speaker suggested that breeding 
grounds of L. g. griseus, although still unknown, probably 
do exist somewhere in eastern Canada or Labrador. The fact 
that they have not yet been found probably depends on factors 
similar to those that have delayed discovery of the breeding 
grounds ofL.g. hendersoni. In spite of the activities of various 
well-known collectors in the west, the Dowitcher there has 
eluded discovery merely because it frequents muskeg which the 
collector avoids, and unless he is prepared to go right into it 
he can pass numerous Dowitchers daily and remain oblivious 
of their presence. 



37 [Vol. lvii. 

The Lesser Yellowshank (Tringa flavipes) mainly patronises 
burnt -over areas on which brush and small trees are again 
getting a substantial footing. The birds tend to sit tightly, 
and even a shot-gun fired close to them may fail to " jump " 
them. Their protective colouring makes them difficult to see. 
Both birds usually incubate. 

The Greater Yellowshank (Tringa melanoleuca) has recently 
been found to nest in old muskeg, although its favourite site, 
on the area under consideration, is unquestionably on the 
jackpine ridges that surround muskeg areas. The ground 
must be more open than that chosen by its lesser relative, 
and burnt logs appear to be an integral requirement. The birds 
sit so closely and are so difficult to see that they can be passed 
at a few feet and entirely missed. When they are successfully 
spotted they usually have to be lifted off the nest before the 
eggs can be examined. The birds have as a rule been collected 
together with the eggs in an effort to determine the sex of the 
incubating individual. With one exception, a bird so shy 
that it "jumped " before the collector was in range, they have 
always been females. The single male was later secured as it 
flew round the nest and its sex determined. While the females 
are incubating on the ridges the males spend their time in the 
muskegs. Here some fifteen have been collected at random 
during various years. They have, without exception, proved to 
be males. When the period of incubation nears completion 
the male takes up a position at the tip of some large dead 
trunk close to the nest, and the moment the last egg has 
hatched — they hatch almost simultaneously, as incubation 
does not commence till the last egg has been deposited — 
assists in conducting the young down to the nearest muskeg, 
where they are reared. Both birds are now excessively 
noisy where formerly they were amongst the most silent of 
the muskeg fraternity. 

The Bonaparte Gull builds a small but beautiful nest in 
tamarac or spruce at any height from two to forty feet. 
Individuals using old Crows' nests have twice been encountered. 
Unlike the Greater Yellowshank, the male bird stays round the 
nest during incubation and bombards visitors, thus giving 
the show away and making the finding of the nest relatively 



Vol. lvii.] 38 

easy. Were it not for these demonstrations the eggs of this 
Gull would be far rarer than they are, for many a nest is 
impossible to see from the ground. 

Photographs of the above species at the nest were shown. 
In addition, a brief account was given of other species on the 
British List that breed also in the muskegs, as well as some 
of the more characteristic species confined to the American 
continent. 

Dr. Karl Jordan, referring to Dr. Rowan's remarks on 
cycles in the abundance of certain mammals and birds, 
inquired as to the presence of ecto-parasites and the occurrence 
of tularaemia. Dr. Rowan replied that ticks were often 
found, but that the disease was uncommon in Alberta. 

Mr. P. F. Bunyard exhibited an interesting series of eggs 
from the Alberta (Canada) muskegs collected by Dr. Rowan 
and A. D. Henderson, including four clutches of four each, 
one of three, and one of two of the Greater Yellowlegs or 
Yellowshank (Tringamelanoleuca), some of which were exhibited 
at the Meeting on October 8, 1930 (Bull. B. 0. C. No. cccxliv. 
pp. 9-11), and made the following remarks : — 

On the arrival of these eggs I at once realized the difficulty 
of describing the eggs of some of the rarer Limicolae from a 
limited series. In regard to the ground-colours, my original 
description holds good, which agrees very well with Bent's 
' Life Histories of North American Shore Birds ' (pp. 324-325). 
Apparently the dark buff ground-colour is characteristic of the 
typical eggs, and the following clutches must be regarded 
more or less as varieties. 

Clutch No. 254 is remarkable. Only one of the four eggs 
has the typical ground-colour and markings ; two are of the 
cyanic variety, and are marked only at the extreme large ends 
with a few heavily superimposed blotches of dark chestnut- 
brown and large underlying markings of greyish-mauve. 
The fourth egg has a ground-colour of ochraceous-green, 
and is, like the first egg, heavily capped with blackish-brown, 
with numerous underlying markings of pale and dark greyish - 
mauve. 



39 [Vol. lvii. 

Clutch No. 142 is especially beautiful, the ground-colour 
varying from pale ochraceous-bu{f to pale greenish. The 
markings are of a very rich shade of reddish- brown, with a 
longitudinal tendency. One has the entire extreme end com- 
pletely capped with pigment, measuring 20-24 mm. 

The third clutch, No. 143, has a distinctive ground-colour 
of greenish -buff, with evenly distributed markings. This, 
and the former clutch, as will be seen from the weights and 
measurements, are very large eggs. 

A further comparative study with the eggs of the Green- 
shank (Tringa nebularia) and Redshank (Tringa totanus 
totanus) confirms that they are much more closely allied to 
those of the latter (see aforementioned Bulletin, p. 10). 

Weights and measurements of the two clutches of exception- 
ally large eggs of Tringa melanoleuca (May 22, 1936, 
fresh ; May 19, heavily incubated). 







Weights. 




Measurements . 






" 1-492 g. 




52 x 33-4 mm. 


Clutch No. 142 




1-557 „ 
1-585 „ 
1-573 „ 




54-4x32-5 „ 
53 X34 
53-3x33-4 „ 


Average . . 


"1-552 „ 


Average 


52-2x33-3 „ 




f 1-492,, 

J 1-484 „ 




53-8x34 


Clutch No. 143 




51 X34-2 „ 

48-8x34-3 „ 




[ 1-407 „ 




50-3x34-8 „ 


Average . . 


1-453 „ 


Average 


51 X34-3 „ 


Average, for 25 


eggs . . 1-470 „ 




49-8x33-9 „ 


Maximum 


1-585 „ 




53-8x34 


Minimum 


1-219,, 




46 X33-8 „ 


Bent's average, 51 eggs . 




48-9x33 mm. 


Maximum 




53-5x33-8 „ 


Minimum 






43-7x31-5 „ 



The foregoing weights and measurements include those eggs 
exhibited on October 8, 1930, and one clutch in the Massey 
collection and one clutch of four from the A. D. Henderson 
collection. 

The three clutches of Red -breasted Snipe (Limnodromus 
griseus hendersoni Rowan) exhibited differ considerably from 



Vol. lvii.] 40 

those exhibited on October 11, 1933 (Bull. B. O. C. No. 
ccclxxi. p. 13). The ground-colour is distinctly more greenish, 
and the underlying markings are bolder and more conspicuous. 
Apparently this is more or less an outstanding characteristic, 
as four of the five clutches exhibited prove. This greenish- 
ground type makes it possible to almost match them with the 
eggs of the Reeve (Philomachus pugnax), which they also 
closely resemble in shape, weight, and size. 

Bent states that they closely resemble certain types of the 
heavily blotched eggs of Wilson's Snipe (Capella gallingao 
delicata). Unfortunately my material for comparative study 
is limited to the single clutch of four exhibited, from which 
it will be seen that there is a slight resemblance to one of the 
clutches of Limnodromus griseus hendersoni in weights and 
measurements ; the latter are not only larger but heavier, 
and the granulation of the shell is a little coarser (see also 
Bull. B. 0. C. No. ccclxv. pp. 90-92). 

Weights and measurements of the eggs of Limnodromus griseus 
hendersoni, including the eight eggs exhibited on 
October 11, 1933. 

Average, 19 eggs 0-864 g. 41-2 x 28-9 mm. 

Maximum 0-993 „ 44 x 27-6 „ 

Minimum 0-742 „ 38 x 28-4 „ 

(Dates : May 31-June 6, fresh to highly incubated. Incuba- 
tion apparently by female, which Rowan twice secured at 
nest or flushed at close range.) 

I exhibit clutches of P. pugnax for comparison, and give 
Rey's weights and measurements : — 

Average, 45 eggs 43-56 X 30-32 mm. 

Maximum 46-9 X 30-8 

Minimum 39-9 X 30-7 „ 

Weight 0-935 g. 

The weights and measurements should also be compared 
with Bent's figures for C. g. delicata (' Life Histories of North 
American Shore Birds,' p. 86). 

The clutch of four eggs of the Solitary Sandpiper (Tringa s. 
solitaria) exhibited were typical, but especially interesting as 



41 [Vol. lvil. 

the bird at the nest had already been shown on the screen. 
It will be noticed that this clutch retains its characteristic 
beautiful green ground-colour. Unfortunately with age 
this fades to a greenish- white. They were taken on June 2, 
1936, from an old nest of the Rusty Blackbird or Grackle 
(Euphagus carolinus Muller) situated in spruce fir — incubation 
advanced. The acquisition of this clutch enables me to fix 
the figures for a unique series of these rare eggs : — 

Average, 49 eggs 0-605-8 g. 36-4 x 25-5 mm. 

Maximum 0-691 „ 39 X 26 

Minimum 0-535 „ 34-2 x 26 

Dr. Rowan, in addition to showing on the screen the Solitary 
Sandpiper at the nest, showed the Greater Yellowshank on 
the nest of clutch No. 142, and also the clutch of Red- breasted 
Snipe in situ, No. 156. 

Mr. Bunyard also exhibited three clutches of two each of 
the American Nightjar or Night-Hawk (Chordeiles minor minor). 
These eggs are beautifully figured by Bendire (' Life Histories 
of North American Birds,' pi. 3, figs. 1-3). He states : "I 
consider the eggs of the Night-Hawk one of the most difficult 
ones known to me to describe satisfactorily." My description, 
from the clutches exhibited, is as follows : — Ground-colour 
pale greenish to greyish-white ; superimposed markings finely 
stippled olive -brown in many shades ; underlying markings 
ash-grey. In shape they resemble the eggs of all the Capri- 
mulgidse on the British List, but they do not show so much 
gloss as on the eggs of Caprimulgus e. europseus and C. ruficollis 
desertorum. The finely stippled superimposed and underlying 
markings are evenly distributed, and usually in equal pro- 
portions, which gives them their beautiful marbled appearance. 

Apparently there is only one British record for this bird, 
which was shot at Tresco, Scilly Isles. The eggs came from 
Seba Beach, Alberta, Indian Bay, Manitoba, and the muskeg 
area of Fawcett, Alberta, which Dr. Rowan has described 
tonight. One clutch was taken on bare rock, and the others 
on bare ground among scanty vegetation, etc. 



Vol. lvii.] 42 

The weights and measurements of the three clutches are as 
follows : — 

c/1 / 0-649 g. 32x23-4 mm. 

'\0-630 „ 30x23-4 „ 

c/9 rO-610 „ 31x22-8 „ 

' '\0-587 „ 30x22 

c/3 J0-613 „ 32x21-8 „ 

' "\0-537 „ 30x22 

Average, 6 eggs .. 0'604 „ 30-8x22-6,, 

Bendire's figures for 81 eggs are as follows : — 

Average 29-97 X 21-84 mm. 

Maximum 33-53 X 22-86 „ 

Minimum 27-68 X 20-57 „ 

Dr. Ernst Mayr sent the following description of a new 
Honey -eater from the Snow Mountains of New Guinea : — 

Melidectes belfordi kinneari, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Similar to Melidectes belfordi brassi Mayr & 
Rand, but smaller ; grey edges of the feathers of the back 
washed with olivaceous, not almost pure grey as in adult 
M. belfordi, or olivaceous as in M. b. joiceyi ; differs from 
M. griseirostris by the black, not grey bill. 

Distribution. — Utakwa River, Nassau Range, Snow Mts., 
New Guinea. 

Type. — Male, Camp 9, Utakwa River, Dutch New Guinea, 
January 26, 1913 ; B. 0. U. New Guinea Exped. ; Brit. Mus. 
Reg. no. 1916.5.30.654. 

Measurements. — Wing, C J, 133, 138, 139 mm., against 139-144 
in if. b. brassi, and tail, (J, 110, 116, 119 mm., against 119-125 in 
M . b. brassi. M. b. joiceyi is still smaller, wing, $, 126-134 mm. 

Remarks. — Dr. E. Stresemann had already called attention to 
the probable distinctness of these birds (Arch. Naturgesch. 
lxxxix. fasc. 7, 1923, p. 55), but did not examine the specimens. 
The recent revision of the south-east New Guinea races of this 
species by Mayr and Rand (Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 1936, 
p. 247), to which M.b. kinneari is most similar, has facilitated 
the correct identification of these Snow Mt. birds. 



43 [Vol. lvii. 

It gives me great pleasure to name this bird in honour of 
Mr. Norman B. Kinnear, who has always been of the greatest 
assistance to me in the study of the New Guinea material 
at the British Museum. 

Mr. David Bannerman sent the following description of a 
new race of Swamp -Warbler from Lake Chad, which he 
proposed to name 

Bradypterus brachypterus chadensis, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Adult male. Most nearly resembles B. brachy- 
pterus abyssinicus, from ' which it differs in its larger size, 
wing 58 mm. (the wing of abyssinicus measures 55 mm. and 
under), no spotting or streaks on throat, and in having a 
decided rufous tinge on the upper parts. 

From B. b. centralis it is altogether browner below, particu- 
larly on the flanks, sides, and under tail-coverts, lacks the 
very white throat and white middle of belly of that race, 
and also lacks the distinct fine streaking on the crop. 

Type.— -In the British Museum (Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1936.2. 
21.1.), Lake Chad, December 1, 1904 ; Boyd Alexander Coll. 

Measurements of type. — Bill (exposed culmen) 13 ; wing 58 ; 
tail 61 ; tarsus 27 mm. 

Remarks. — This specimen, the only example of the B. brachy- 
pterus group ever obtained from Lake Chad, or indeed from 
any locality nearer than the Nyong River in the Cameroons, 
has lain for years in the private museum of the late Boyd 
Alexander in the family seat at Cran brook. The large number 
of what were believed to be duplicates of his African collections 
have now been acquired by the British Museum, and this, the 
first specimen I happen to have examined critically, cannot 
be assigned to any known race of this puzzling genus, so many 
members of which, as in the present instance, are unique 
examples. Under the circumstances I have no option but to 
describe it as a new race. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following three notes : — 

(1) On the Distribution of Two Eastern African Races of 
Pternistis afer (P. L. S. Muller). 



Vol. lvii.] 44 

With reference to our note in the Bull. British Ornithologists' 
Club, lv. 1935, p. 84, Dr. van Someren has sent us for identifica- 
tion an adult male of this Francolin from Lumbo, Mozambique 
Province, Portuguese East Africa, and in a letter dated 
July 23, 1926, states that he has a series of males and females 
with moustachial stripe and cheeks black, all taken at the 
same time by Loveridge. This male proves to be typical 
Pternistis afer melanogaster Neumann, and causes us to slightly 
alter the distribution of two races, as follows : — 

Pternistis afer humboldtii (Peters). 

Distribution. — The valley of the Zambesi in Portuguese 
East Africa west of the mouth of the Shire River, central and 
southern Portuguese East Africa north of the Zambesi, except 
the Zambesi Valley east of the mouth of the Shire River. 

Pternistis afer melanogaster Neumann. 

Distribution. — Rovuma Valley and northern Portuguese East 
Africa as far south as Lumbo, Mozambique, the Songea 
District (Mbamba Bay, Mkiri, and Lipumba), Mahenge 
District, Morogoro District (Mkata Plains), Dar-es-Salaam, 
Korogwe and Tanga in northern and eastern Tanganyika 
Territory. 

(2) On the Correct Name for the Resident and Migratory 
Kentish Plover of Eastern Africa. 

1758.— Linnseus (Syst. Nat. 10th ed. 1758, p. 150 : Egypt) 
founded his name on Hasselquist, Iter Palaestinum, 1757, 
p. 255, no. 50, who under his Charadrius alexandrinus tells 
us that he found this bird on May 24, 1750, in the channel 
which leads the water of the Nile to Alexandria. As his bird 
was taken in the breeding season (May and June) we must 
accept this name as that of the resident Egyptian breeding 
bird. 

1887. — Seebohm gave the name Charadrius cantianus 
minutus (Geogr. Dist. Charadriidse, 1887, p. 169) to this race, 
saying it is " resident on the southern shores of the Red Sea, 
where it was obtained by Blanford (Geol. & Zool. Abyss. 
1870, p. 429), and on the island of Ceylon, where Legge found 



45 [Vol. lvii. 

it breeding on the margins of the salt lagoons." Seebohm 
did not designate a type. He considered the possibility of this 
bird being referable to the Charadrius alexandrinus of Hassel- 
quist (Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. i. 1758, p. 253). Reference to 
Blanford's Geol. & Zool. Abyss. 1870, p. 429, shows that 
under his no. 246, M. niveifrons, he found it " abundant at 
Zulla in June " ; and " I also shot a specimen at Massowa in 
August." Therefore the type-locality of Seebohm's C. c. 
minutus is Zulla, Eritrea. 

1904.— Reichenow, J. f. 0. 1904, p. 307, adopted Lichten- 
stein's nom. nud., Hiaticula elegans (Nomencl. Av. Berol. 
1854, p. 94), giving the type-locality as El Tor, Sinai Peninsula, 
but overlooking the fact that this nomen nudum had already 
been sunk in the synonymy of Mgialitis alexandrina (Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus. xxiv, 1896, p. 277). 

1915. — Hartert and Jackson, Ibis, 1915, p. 529, discovered 
that Seebohm's C. minutus was preoccupied by C. minutus 
(C. dubius curonicus) Pallas, Zoogr. Rosso-Asiat. ii. 1811, p. 145, 
and so proposed the name Charadrius alexandrinus seebohmi 
in substitution, but made the mistake of designating a type 
and placing the type-locality at Aripo, north Ceylon, when 
in actual fact the proposing of a new name for one preoccupied 
does not alter the type nor the original type-locality, in this 
case Zulla, Eritrea, Eastern Africa. 

1930.— Meinertzhagen, NicolPs Bds. of Egypt, ii. 1930, 
p. 537, uses Linnseus's C. alexandrinus for the local " Small 
Form " and Latham's C. cantianus (Ind. Orn. Suppl. 1801, 
p. lxvi : Kent, England) for the migratory " Large Form," 
giving wing-measurements of Egyptian summer birds as 
101-108 mm. and migratory birds as 106-118 mm. 

Through the kindness of Dr. Kadry, of the Giza Zoological 
Museum, we have been able to examine an adult male (G.Z.M. 
9122), taken at Lake Qarun, Fayum, on June 18, 1922, which 
has a wing of 104 mm. An examination of the specimens in 
the British Museum Collection gives wing-measurements of 
99-106 mm. for the resident birds, and 105-118 mm. for the 
migratory birds. 

Col. Meinertzhagen obtained on May 23 and 25, 1936, 



Vol. lvii.] 46 

seven breeding males and two breeding females, which he 
has very kindly allowed us to examine. These nine birds were 
shot at Lake Edku, only five miles from Alexandria, and their 
wings measure in the males 103 to 109 mm., and in the females 
103 to 109 mm. 

Dr. Ticehurst has very kindly supplied us with the wing- 
measurements of three breeding males and three breeding 
females he obtained at Lake Mariotis, near Alexandria, on 
May 15, 1909— these give 99 to 110-5 mm.— and Mr. Hugh 
Whistler gives the wing-measurement of an adult female 
shot at Port Sudan on May 4, 1926, as 109 mm. This bird 
had recently bred. 

Egyptian and Sudan birds therefore have a wing-measure- 
ment of 99 to 110-5 mm. and European birds 105 to 118, 
showing an overlap of 5 mm., and a greater measurement in 
European birds of 8 mm . The average of these sixteen breeding 
Egyptian birds is 106-3 mm. : one has a wing-measurement of 
99 mm., three are 109, and two others are 110 and 110-5. The 
average of the eighteen Kent and Sussex birds is 109-6 mm. : 
four are 107, three 108, four 109, and one 110. These 
measurements show that there is an average difference between 
British and Egyptian breeding birds of 3-3 mm., and that 
of the eighteen British birds twelve are within the measurements 
of the Egyptian birds, and of the sixteen Egyptian birds 
seven are within the measurements of the British birds. There 
are thus 33J per cent. British birds which exceed the wing- 
measurements of Egyptian birds and 22-3 per cent, of Egyptian 
birds which are below the measurements of British birds. 

The difference in size of bill, which some authors give as 
a character, is also just as unreliable as the wing-measurements. 
We therefore find that the evidence we have collected does not 
support the separation of the Egyptian and British breeding 
Kentish Plover into two races. 

We therefore have the case of a bird resident and breeding 
in the coastal areas of Egypt, the Sudan, and Eritrea aug- 
mented in the northern non- breeding season by birds from 
Europe, which have a movement as far as South Africa. 



47 [Vol. lvii. 

(3) On the exact Type-locality of Poicephalus rufiventris 
pallidus van Som. 
In the Nov. Zool. xxix. 1922, p. 47, van Someren gives 
the type-locality of his new race as North Somaliland. 
Dr. Ernst Mayr has very kindly examined on our behalf the 
type in the Rothschild Collection, now at the American 
Museum of Natural History, New York, and informs us that 
it was collected by G. W. Bury on January 8, 1906, at Burao, 
British Somaliland. 



NOTICES. 

The next Meeting of the Club will be held on Wednesday, 
December 9, 1936, at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place 
S.W. 7. The Dinner at 7 p.m. 

Members intending to dine must inform the Hon. Secretary, 
Dr. A, Landsborough Thomson, 16 Tregunter Road, S.W. 10, 
on the post-card sent out before the Meeting. 

Members who wish to make any communication at the 
next Meeting of the Club should give notice to the Editor, 
Capt. C. H. B. Grant, 58a Ennismore Gardens, S.W. 7. The 
titles of their contributions will then appear on the Agenda 
published before the Meeting. All MSS. for publication in 
the ' Bulletin ' must be given to the Editor before or at the 
Meeting. 



Agenda. 

1. Mr. W. B. Alexander will make a statement on the Isle 

of May Observatory in 1936. 

2. The Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain will discuss the specific identity 

of Corvus cor one and Corvus comix. 

3. Mr. J. G. Mavrogordato will show a film on Sexual aber- 

rations of a trained Goshawk. 

b 



I R 



ra |\ o o -yvv 






■• 






;> v 



y 



BULLETIN 



r\y OF THE 



BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB. 



No. CCOC 



The three-hundred-and-ninety-fifth Meeting of the Club was 
held at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on 
Wednesday, December 9, 1936. 

Chairman : Mr. G. M. Mathews. 

Members present : — W. B. Alexander; D. A. Bannerman ; 
Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; F. J. F. Barrington ; Hon. G. L. 
Charteris; Maj.-Gen. Sir P. Z. Cox; A. Ezra; Miss J. M. 
Ferrier; J. Fisher; H. A. Gilbert; Capt. C. H. B. Grant 
(Editor) ; Col. A. E. Hamerton ; R. E. Heath ; Dr. K. Jordan ; 
Rev. F. C. R. Jotjrdain; Dr. N. H. Joy; N. B. Kinnear; 
Miss E. P. Leach ; Miss C. Longfield ; Dr. G. Carmichael 
Low; Dr. P. R. Lowe; C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; J. H. 
McNeile; Lieut.-Col. H. A. F. Magrath; Dr. P. Manson- 
Bahr; J. G. Mavrogordato ; Dr. W. Norman May; 
Col. R. Meinertzhagen ; C. A. Norris ; C. Oldham ; H. J. R. 
Pease ; H. Leyborne Popham ; Dr. W. Rowan ; W. L. 
Sclater; Major A. G. L. Sladen (Hon. Treas.); C. R. 
Stonor; Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson (Hon. Sec.); 

B. W. Tucker; Mrs. H. W. Boyd Watt; H. F. Witherby; 

C. G. M. de Worms. 

Guest of the Club : — Dr, Finn Salomonsen. 
[January 5, 1936.] ; a vol. lvij. 



Vol. lvii.] 50 

Guests : — Lady Cox ; H. F. I. Elliot ; H. Gronvold ; 
P. C. Hawker; G. N. May; J. L. Chaworth Musters; 
L. E. Scott ; M. F. Strutt ; L. S. V. Venables ; Hon. David 
Watson. 

Members of the Club, 41 ; Guests of the Club, 1 ; Guests, 10. 

Mr. George Waterston sent for exhibition an example 
of the Booted Warbler (Hippolais caligata), a new species 
to the British Isles, which was obtained on Fair Isle on 
September 3, 1930, by George Stout. 

Full particulars of this occurrence are given in ' British 
Birds,' vol. xxx. 1936, p. 226. 

Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson showed some cones of the 
Swiss stone-pine (Pinus cembra L.) on which Thick-billed 
Nutcrackers (Nucifraga caryocatades caryocatactes) had been 
feeding. He thought that they might be of interest to those 
present who were not familiar with the species, although its 
feeding-habits were, of course, well known. He had collected 
the specimens last August at an altitude of about 7000 feet 
near Zermatt, Switzerland, where the birds were common. 

Mr. W. B. Alexander made the following remarks on the 
Isle of May Bird Observatory in 1936 : — 

Observers were present on the island continuously in spring 
from April 4 to May 25, and in autumn from August 21 to 
October 8. Brief visits were also made to the island in 
March and the early part of August, whilst in July Mr. H. N. 
Southern spent some time making a census of the breeding 
birds. 

Neither in spring nor in autumn was there a night when birds 
were attracted to the light, at least when ornithologists were 
present. The birds ringed, apart from nestling sea-birds, 
were almost all trapped. Some of the bushes, particularly 
elders, in the trapping garden have made considerable growth, 
and the garden appears to be increasingly attractive to 
migrants. 

During the spring 252 birds of 40 species and subspecies 
were trapped and ringed, whilst the autumn catch was 
326 individuals of 41 species and subspecies. 



51 [Vol. lvii. 

The species caught in largest numbers in spring were 
Blackbirds (37), British Robins (35), Willow-Wrens (33), 
Whitethroats (19), and Reed-Buntings (18) ; in autumn 
Willow- Wrens (72), Rock-Pipits (35), House -Sparrows (26), 
Meadow-Pipits (23), and Garden -Warblers (21). 

Among the more interesting birds ringed were : — Ortolan, 
Yellow-breasted Bunting, and Little Bunting (1 each), Red- 
backed Shrike and Red-breasted Flycatcher (2 each), Reed- 
Warbler, Chiffchaff, and Siberian Lesser Whitethroat (1 each), 
Yellow-browed and Barred Warblers (2 each), Norwegian 
Bluethroats (4), Wryneck (1), and Corncrakes (2) 

Interesting species seen but not captured included Grey- 
headed Wagtail, White-spotted Bluethroat, and Wood- 
Sandpiper in spring, Lapland Bunting and Dotterel in autumn. 

The first Robin to appear on the island this autumn was 
caught on September 30, and proved to be an individual 
of British race, ringed on the Isle of May on September 28, 
1935. In 1935 it remained on the island till October 7, 
having stopped for ten days ; this year it only stayed three days. 

Having now paid four visits to the Isle of May in autumn 
I may, perhaps, be justified in drawing attention to the high 
porportion which birds of uncommon species seem, to show on 
this island in relation to the total number of migrants which 
call there. The actual numbers of migrants which alight on 
the island appear to be very small in comparison with the 
numbers visiting Heligoland, or even Holy Island, but I should 
judge that the percentage of rarities is actually considerably 
greater. For example, only 27 Buntings were caught on the 
island this year, but this total included an Ortolan, a Little 
Bunting, and a Yellow-breasted Bunting. Out of 19 Fly- 
catchers caught 2 were Red-breasted Flycatchers, whilst 
among 213 Warblers there were 2 Barred Warblers, 2 Yellow- 
browed Warblers, and a Siberian Lesser Whitethroat. 

I can only suggest that such a barren island in full view 
of an extensive stretch of coast does not attract birds to alight 
unless they are almost exhausted, and that the most tired birds 
are likely to be those which have made the longest journeys. 
This view receives some support from the fact that the two 
birds which have spent the longest time on the island during 

a2 



Vol. lvii.] 52 

my visits have also been birds which must have made the 
longest journeys to reach it. In 1934 the Greenland Redpoll 
(C. f. rostrata) remained from October 3 to at least October 12 
(when we left). This year the Siberian Lesser Whitethroat 
(S. c. affinis) remained on the island from September 17 to 
October 5. 

The Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain made the following remarks 
on the specific identity of the Carrion- and Hooded Crows, 
Corvus corone and comix : — 

First of all may I say that I use the word " genus " in the 
sense of Hartert, and not Austin Roberts. True, in the first 
part of the ' Vogel d. Pal. Fauna ' he separated the Jackdaws 
under the name of Coloeus, but in later years, though disinclined 
to alter what he had written, he admitted that the use of the 
genera Coloeus and Chloris was out of keeping with his later 
practice. So let us, for the purpose of the evening, take it 
that Raven, Rook, Crows, and Jackdaws are all included 
in the genus Corvus. You all know how common a thing in 
nature it is to find a common type of colouring or colour- 
pattern, or even colour itself, running through a genus. 
Many years ago Tristram humourously pointed out the colour 
characterstics of the Crow family : the Raven, Rook, and 
Carrion-Crow in deep mourning (like a lot of Scotch Elders) ; 
the Hoodie (and he might have added Corvus albus and 
torquatus) venturing on black and grey ; the Pies, which he 
compared to dashing widows in smart half-mourning ; the 
Nutcrackers with their spotted suits ; the Choughs with their 
bright ties and socks ; and so on. But when we come to other 
families and genera we meet with quite a different state of 
things. We cannot imagine a Caprimulgus wearing anything 
but a heather mixture. A Chat (CEnanihe) can do things 
which could never be permitted in any other genus. The 
same species may be sexually dimorphic in one part of its 
range and not in another. One male may wear a black cap 
or throat-patch and another may prefer a white one ; yet 
just because he happens to be a Chat he can get away with it, 
though such conduct would not be tolerated for a moment 
in other genera, 



53 [Vol. lvii. 

To return to our Crows. Here the rule is definitely either 
all black or grey and black — almost black and white in extreme 
cases. 

Of these let us consider the two Crows. Between them they 
cover practically the whole of the Eurasian Continent. Forms 
of the Black Crow also extend over the greater part of North 
and Middle America ; Africa has only been colonized in 
the north-east by a Hoodie, but the islands of Malaysia and 
even Australia are inhabited by Black Crow forms. Thus 
the Black Crows have a far wider world distribution than the 
Hoodies. The latter are a purely Old World family, ranging 
from typical C. comix to C. sardonius (southern and eastern 
Europe, Egypt, etc.), C. pallescens in Cyprus, G. minos in 
Crete, the very light G. capellanus in Iraq, and G. sharpii 
in Persia, West Siberia, etc. The Old World Black Crows 
have not been much divided in Eurasia ; typical C. corone and 
eastern C. orientalis reach from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
and Japan. 

How natural then to treat them as two species, each with its 
own races ! Yet there is much in common between them — 
similar habits, notes, eggs, etc. — but the strangest thing is 
their extraordinary jig-saw distribution, and the fact that 
where their ranges overlap they freely interbreed, and all 
gradations may be found between them, as in Scotland, 
West Germany, Siberia, etc. 

In the Old World it is not a case of a northern and southern 
form, or an eastern and western one. Hoodies exist west to 
Ireland, Faeroes, and the Hebrides, and east to Siberia. Carrion- 
Crows breed west to the Iberian Peninsula and east to the 
Pacific. Hooded Crows nest north to the north of Scandinavia 
and Russia; south to Egypt, Iraq, and Persia; while Black 
Crows range from the forests of the Yenisei to Andalucia. 

There remains the one obstacle, the existence of the two 
colour-patterns. Let us turn to the Jackdaws. Here we 
have one species, spread rather patchily over Europe, pene- 
trating into N.W. Africa (where the Crows could never get 
a foothold), and with slightly differing forms, C. cirtensis in 
Algeria, C. soemmeringii in Eastern Europe and Western Asia, 
and a really different race, C. dauuricus, with a grey under 



Vol. lvii.] 54 

surface, not unlike a small Hoodie, reaching from Central 
Asia to China and Japan. 

But wherever C. dauuricus existed there was also found in 
smaller numbers a second " black " Jackdaw, which associated 
with the grey ones and yet was so obviously different that 
diametrically opposing views were held by those on the spot 
and even by the same men at different times. Swinhoe, 
who did so much for ornithology in China, was positive 
that the two birds were two species. He settled the point 
to his own complete satisfaction when he found that the 
nestling of C. dauuricus was a grey and not a black bird ! 

When Hartert wrote in 1903 he put the black form (C. ne- 
qlectus) under a separate heading as a species, but wrote in 
brackets " Hochstwahrscheinlich keine Art ! " after it. 

Gradually the truth has come to light. In European 
Jackdaws there is a smallish proportion of birds which have 
very little grey in the nape, almost blackish. These are the 
first winter birds, and when they adopt the adult plumage 
the grey nape becomes more apparent. It is proved that this 
is the case because these dark birds have the rather pointed 
rectrices of immaturity, while the corresponding feathers 
of the adults are more squared. 

I do not want to give anyone the impression that I have 
made any discovery. For many years past Pastor Otto 
Kleinschmidt has taught the specific identity of the two 
Crows, as Newton did about half a century ago. Now he 
has studied the feathers of these two Jackdaws, and he has 
pointed out, as La Touche also admits, that G. neglectus 
specimens are, like our European dark-naped birds, all im- 
mature. So that when C. dauuricus is first hatched it is a grey 
and black bird, a Hoodie so to say, as Swinhoe had pointed 
out, but it moults into a Black Daw (C. neglectus), which, in 
turn, moults out into a Hoodie again ! 

Now, if we have a Hoodie phase twice and a Black phase 
once in the life of a single bird, why should not there be black 
and hooded geographical races of the same species ? The 
other objections have gone, and the colour bar has proved to 
be no obstacle at all. 



55 [Vol. lvii 

Mr. H. F. Witherby made the following remarks : — 
Mr. Jourdain has made a case for regarding the Carrion 
and Hooded Crows as being of one species, and if I had an 
equal gift of debate I think I could make as good a case for 
regarding them as two species. In other words, I think 
this is a case which cannot be proved either way, and whether 
we consider these birds as being of one species or two species 
is a matter of opinion and a matter of convenience. Perhaps 
there is really no such thing as a species in nature ; but unless 
we invent a new system of classification we must uphold it. 

The fact that hybrids between these two Crows are to be 
found where they meet and that these hybrids are fertile 
inter se has long been known. The infertility of hybrids 
has also long been discarded as a criterion of a species, since 
a number of exceptions have been proved. 

Mr. Jourdain has spoken of intergradation, but I do not 
agree that there is any evidence of intergradation between 
these two Crows. Where they meet they hybridize, and 
a collection of the resulting mongrels can be picked out and 
arranged artificially so that they pass gradually from the 
pure Carrion to the pure Hoodie, as was done years ago by 
Seebohm, and is so exhibited in a case in the hall of the 
Natural History Museum . But there is no natural geographical 
intergradation between the two birds such as one finds in 
subspecies as a result of climatic or other factors governing 
their differentiation. In these two Crows there is merely 
a mixture of plumage varying in individuals and produced 
solely by hybridization. The Hooded Crow is represented 
by a number of subspecies in its range, but these are all 
definitely Hooded Crows, and no form is more like a Carrion 
than any other, nor is there any form of Carrion which shows 
any of the grey of the Hooded. 

The sequence of plumages discovered by Kleinschmidt 
in the Jackdaw, C. dauuricus, is extremely interesting, but 
in the Carrion- and Hooded Crows there is no suggestion of 
such a transition, and the plumage remains of the same 
pattern throughout the lives of these birds. 

For many years now in this country we have regarded 
these Crows as of two species, and they are so regarded by 



Vol. lvii.l 56 

Hartert in his great work on Palaearctic birds, and I think it 
would be a mistake to re-swing the pendulum, referred to by 
Mr. Jourdain, and go back to former ideas without more 
convincing evidence. 

I may be considered non-progressive, but taking the view 
of the birds (if they have views), however they may have been 
thousands of years ago, have they not now arrived at a stage 
when, provided they do not make mixed marriages, their 
children will certainly be like themselves, and they may 
claim to be stabilized as distinct species. 

Colonel Meinertzhagen pointed out that he had for many 
years regarded Corvus corone and Corvus comix as conspecific, 
and had regarded Corvus monedula and Corvus dauuricus in 
the same light. He thought that Corvus corone and Corvus 
comix presented a most interesting example of speciation, 
in that C. comix and C. corone were mutations one of the other, 
thus presenting evolution in accordance with Mendelian 
principles, whilst each mutation, reacting to climatic conditions, 
again presents further differences, so in the whole Corvus corone 
group we find five or six subspecies evolved from two quite 
different types of evolution. 

With reference to the distribution of the group, it will 
probably be found that it has representatives in North America, 
in Africa, and also that the large southern Asiatic and Austra- 
lian group (C. coronoides or C. macrorhynchus) will eventually 
be considered as geographical forms of C. corone. 

Following some remarks by Mr. W. L. Sclater, Dr. Percy 
Lowe said that : — 

On the overlap in distribution of the two Woodpeckers, 
Colaptes auratus and Colaptes cafer, in the United States of 
America, it might be worth mentioning that Bateson, in his 
' Problem of Genetics,' had quoted J. A. Allen (Bull. Amer. 
Mus. Nat. Hist. iv. 1892) as having computed that the overlap 
of these two well-known species represented a band of country 
some 1200 miles long by 350 miles wide. This area, he says, 
contains some normal birds of each type, but chiefly birds 
exhibiting the characters of both, mixed together in various and 
irregular ways. 



57 [Vol. lvii. 

Dr. Lowe also said that Bateson had given a most interesting 
account in the same book of the case of two North American 
Wood- Warblers of the genus Helminthophila and their over- 
lapping forms, this account having been drawn from Dr. Frank 
Chapman's ' North American Warblers ' and Dr. Bishop's 
paper in ' The Auk,' xxii. 1905. 

These two Warblers, known as H. pinus and H. chrysoptera, 
were characterized by the following colour-pattern scheme, as 
given by Bateson : — 

H. pinus. H. chrysoptera. 

(1) Mantle and lower parts yellow. Mantle and lower parts grey. 

(2) Wing-bars white. Wing-bars yellow. 

(3) Cheek and throat not black. Cheek and throat black. 

In the overlapping areas two forms have been repeatedly 
found and described as two distinct species, viz., H. lawrencei 
and H. leucobronchialis . H. lawrencei has the underparts 
yellow, wing-bars white, and throat and ear-patches black ; 
while H. leucobronchialis has the mantle grey, underparts 
practically white, wing-bars yellow, and no black throat or 
ear-patches. It seems impossible to believe that these two last 
forms owe their origin to anything else but the recombination 
of colour factors resulting from hybridization in the over- 
lapping areas. 

Bateson quotes Allen as giving another excellent example 
in the case of Bseolophus bicolor and B. atricristatus, where 
the intergrades, or whatever they may be called, have, as usual, 
received specific names. 

And then there is that very interesting case of the Tanagers 
of the genus Rhamphocozlus in Central America, where, as 
Bateson points out, the forms known to systematists as 
E. passer inii and R. icteronotus exhibit the clearest phenomena 
of intergradation. Quite a number of other examples of the 
same phenomenon could of course be quoted. 

Dr. Lowe also said he would like to ask Mr. Wither by that 
if, as he has just remarked, the offspring of a cross between 
the Carrion-Crow and the Hooded Crow were fertile, that was 
not a point for Mr. Jourdain's argument that these two forms 
were not distinct species. 

a5 



Vol. lvii.] 58 

Mr. H. F. Witherby further remarked : — 

Amongst birds, over thirty years ago the late J. L. Bonhote 
proved that hybrids between various species of Duck were 
fertile, and as a result of his experiments he exhibited a duck 
amongst whose progenitors there were as many as five distinct 
species (see ' Proceedings 4th Internat. Congress,' pp. 235-264). 

Maj.-Gen. Sir Percy Cox and Dr. W. Rowan also entered 
into the discussion. 

Mr. J. G. Mavrogordato showed a film on the Sexual 
Aberrations of a trained Goshawk, and made the following 
remarks : — 

At the meeting of the Club on May 13 of this year I exhibited 
a clutch of " British-taken " Goshawk eggs which I had 
hastily to explain had been laid in captivity by my trained 
Goshawk. This event had a sequel which may, I hope, be of 
interest to ornithologists as well as to falconers. 

After the Hawk had finished laying her clutch of four eggs 
my efforts to find a male for her suddenly proved successful. 
By a stroke of luck the male proved to be a fully adult bird 
in his fourth year, and I was permitted by his owner (a com- 
plete stranger to me) to borrow him for the purposes of the 
experiment, I of course undertaking as far as possible to 
see that no harm came to him. That this undertaking was 
no light one may be gathered from the fact that the male 
weighed only an ounce or so over 1J lb., while the female 
touched 3 lb. and was also in better condition. 

As it was already the middle of May I considered I had not 
much time to lose, and after a few days, during which they 
were allowed to become acquainted from neighbouring bow- 
perches, I put them both into a stable-loft, divided in the centre 
by a removable partition of string netting, and made myself 
a " hide " in one corner. During the greater part of the 
day they remained separated, and the female whiled away the 
time in putting sticks and straw on to the platform (one yard 
square and one yard high) which I had erected as a basis for 
a nest on her side of the partition. In the early evening, 



59 [Vol. lvii. 

on my return from town, I would run them together and 
retire into hiding, ready to intervene on behalf of the unwilling 
suitor. 

Needless to say it was Leap Year, and the female made all 
the running, chasing the male all over the loft, knocking him 
flying off the perches, and generally hunting him till she had 
him cornered, when he would stand at bay while she waltzed 
round him with wings and tail expanded, calling violently, 
till he managed to slip past her and gain a moment's respite. 
She never actually " footed " him, but this proved to be small 
consolation, as he eventually became so nervous that he would 
risk injury by dashing himself wildly against the barred 
windows in his efforts to avoid her ; and to cut a long story 
short, after eight days I had to remove him in order to save 
him from a nervous breakdown — he had taken to rolling on 
his back and squeaking with terror whenever the love-sick 
lady approached him, and this abject behaviour soon turned 
her love to hate : Hell knows no fury like a Goshawk scorned. 

During all this time she had been adding sticks and straw 
to the platform, and by now there was quite a substantial 
eyrie ; but she proved to be an indifferent architect — many of 
her best pieces, such as a stick 5 feet long, that had taken her 
over fifteen minutes to get up from the floor and put into 
position, fell off again the moment her back was turned ; 
and as she seemed to have no idea of how to make a cup or 
depression in the middle for the eggs, the nest began to resemble 
a large-scale edition of the top of a Magpie's nest. I accordingly 
took the matter in hand myself, and achieved quite a realistic 
depression, which the Hawk thenceforth managed to preserve 
intact. 

The removal of the male did not involve any slackening 
of her building activities, and I assumed that all this nest- 
building was a prelude to a fresh clutch of unfertile eggs ; 
but it soon began to appear probable that the bird either 
could not or would not lay again, and so on May 31 I put 
one of her old eggs into the nest by way of encouragement, 
and to my surprise she almost immediately started to incubate 
it. The next day I gave her another egg, and two days later 

a6 



Vol. lvii.] 60 

(by which time she was thoroughly broody) I added a half- 
incubated Sparrow-Hawk egg from a neighbouring wood. 

During this period of incubation the most noteworthy 
point was the extreme gentleness with which so large a bird 
treated the eggs, and in particular her method, probably com- 
mon to birds of prey and possibly to all birds, of walking on 
to the eggs on her " elbows," with the foot clenched and the long 
sharp claws consequently curved inwards out of harm's way. 
I have tried to illustrate this on the film. 

By June 19 I had discovered both that her Sparrow-Hawk 
egg was not going to hatch and that the eggs in the nest in 
the wood had already done so, the chicks being then some 
three or four days old ; and so that night, with the help of 
a friend, I substituted two of the chicks (choosing females 
for their superior size) for her eggs, getting a film record of the 
actual substitution and of the bird's reactions to it. She 
showed, as I had expected, very little surprise, accepting 
the chicks more or less as a matter of course, registering obvious 
pleasure and excitement, and at once falsifying the gloomy 
prognostications of numerous friends and advisers who had 
been as certain that she would eat them as I had been certain 
she would not. 

So far so good ; but the question remained, would she 
know how to feed them ? And the answer to that was soon 
disappointingly obvious. She did not. In fact for two or 
three days she brooded them so unremittingly that she would 
not leave the nest even to feed herself, and when I drove her 
off returned to it immediately. This seemed at first sight 
a serious breakdown of instinct, but it should of course 
be remembered in her favour that had the chicks been newly 
hatched (which they were not) they would normally have 
gone without food for a good part of that time. 

As it was, for the first three days I had to do all the feeding 
myself, not too easy a job with chicks of that size. On the 
third day I had to go to town, and deputed the mid-day meal 
to a friend, and on my return learnt with dismay that he had 
only succeeded in giving one of them one mouthful before 
he was chased out of the loft by the Hawk, which was plainly 
meditating an act of unprovoked agression. ' 



61 [Vol. lvii. 

At this stage, when it began to look as if the experiment 
must fail, she discovered how to feed them. At first, when the 
young ones stretched up for food, she would tear off a piece, 
meditatively swallow it herself, then bend down with beak 
ajar and offer the now empty beak to the chick. Later, 
however, the chick would occasionally manage to reach up 
high enough and quickly enough to snatch the piece of meat 
from her beak before it disappeared, and it was this which, 
I think, eventually gave her the right idea ; and from that time 
onward she fed them herself, though she always had an 
annoying habit of eating the best and least readily procured 
food, such as Sparrows, herself, and giving them the beef 
destined for her. 

The only other anxiety I had was when their quills began to 
sprout. She was firmly of opinion that they were supposed 
to be white all over, and just as she had carefully picked off 
any scraps of meat adhering to their white down so now she 
tried to pick off the untidy dark excrescences appearing 
through the down, and only stopped when an unusually 
violent tweak made the youngster squeak its protest. Luckily 
she learnt better before any harm was done. 

Like many birds of prey, and therefore probably like the 
wild Goshawk, she continued to decorate the nest even when 
the youngsters were quite well grown, and if I scattered fresh 
green sprigs of larch or fir about the floor she was certain 
sooner or later to take them to the nest, though it was some 
ten days before I succeeded in filming her in the act, owing to 
her irregular habits in this respect. On one occasion she 
carried the sprig in her foot and not in the beak, as is the 
usual custom, and sometimes she varied the decoration by 
the addition of her own moulted tail-feathers and primaries. 
Such feathers are, of course, often found on a Hawk's nest, 
but have no doubt normally been moulted there. 

Although I could still do anything with her or the chicks 
she had by the time the chicks were half-grown become 
very aggressive towards any strangers who accompanied me 
to the loft, dashing backwards and forwards past the nest, 
sounding the alarm, much like a wild Sparrow-Hawk in similar 
circumstances, and plainly contemplating attack, though she 



Vol. lvii.] 62 

only once clawed someone, and that fortunately only my brother. 
It would, however, have been quite inadvisable by now for 
anyone to have ventured into the loft unaccompanied. 

The young birds first left the nest on July 15, and as one 
of them was down on the floor and looked rather lost I picked 
it up, meaning to put it back on the edge of the nest ; while 
it was squeaking with fright in my grasp, however, the Goshawk 
dashed frantically across the room to the rescue, snatched it 
from my hand, and flew away with the young bird dangling 
from its foot, thus settling in advance any future controversy 
as to the ability of Goshawks to carry young Sparrow-Hawks 
out of the danger zone. 

On July 25 the young birds were fully fledged and quite 
strong on the wing, and they and the old bird were taken from 
the loft. Their subsequent history proved disappointing. 
I gave one to a friend, but it did not prove a success ; and 
the other, which I kept and partially trained, remained, as it 
had been in the loft, suspicious and cantankerous, until I 
eventually liberated it. 

The film was taken by artificial light, and required some 
2000 watts at a distance of a very few feet from the nest ; 
but though the direct rays were at that range unbearable 
to the human eye, they did not, as appears from the film, 
at all distress the Hawks, which evidently share the eagle's 
prerogative of gazing with impunity at the midday sun. 

Dr. Salomonsen showed two films from his expedition 
showing the life of the Eskimos in various parts of Greenland, 
pictures of the different landscapes, glaciers, etc., and of 
various species of birds, for instance the Kittiwake, Brunnich's 
Guillemot, Northern Phalarope, etc., and made the following 
remarks : — 

During the summer of 1936 I made a zoological expedition 
to northern Greenland. The west coast between 73-78° N. lat. 
was investigated, and about 400 bird skins were collected. 
The expedition also made quantitative investigations of the 
marine bottom-fauna, and obtained a good collection of 
samples of the microfauna of the earth. 



63 [Vol. lvii. 

Dr. C. B. Ticehurst forwarded the following communica- 
tion : — 

I have more than once called attention to the distinctness 
of the Iberian Chiffchaff (Ibis, 1928, p. 675 ; 1935, p. 560), 
for which bird, if they have recognized it, authors have used 
the name Phylloscopus collybita brehmii Homeyer. 

E. F. von Homeyer described this bird in 1871 as Phyllo- 
pneuste brehmii (Erinnerungschr. Vers, deutsch. Ornith. 1870, 
p. 48) from amongst a collection of Portuguese birds collected 
by Dr. Rey, and received through the dealers, Messrs. Schliiter 
of Halle. Homeyer remarks on the darkness of the upper 
parts, weaker bill, and the short second primary, which is 
a little longer than the secondaries, and the much shorter 
wing, 51-52 mm. He gives measurements of P. brehmii and 
P. rufus (=P. collybita), and evidently compared a female 
of the one with a male of the other. As none of Homeyer 's 
distinctions fit the Iberian Chiffchaff, I asked Dr. Steinbacher 
if he would kindly examine the type and give me a report on it. 
Homeyer's birds are in the Brunswick Museum, and three 
Chiffchaffs labelled P. brehmii were found. One of these was 
collected by Loche in Algeria, and Homeyer received it via 
Schneider. It was originally labelled Phyllopneuste rufa, and 
this was altered by Homeyer to P. brehmii. The bird is a 
Phylloscopus trochilus, as Hartert noted years ago, and this is 
now confirmed again by Dr. Steinbacher. The other two are 
labelled Ph. brehmii by Homeyer, and are : $, Morocco, 
3. v. 84, and ad., Portugal, April 1869. Both were compared 
by Hartert and passed as P. collybita. This latter bird must 
be Homeyer's type. It has a wing of 54-5 mm. (and therefore 
a female), and the second primary is between the seventh and 
eighth. Dr. Steinbacher has compared it with German birds 
and informs me that it corresponds exactly with these except 
that it is not so worn as April and May German birds are, 
and is more like an autumn bird, and he suggests that the 
date may be wrong. As Homeyer's description does not 
pick out any of the points by which the Iberian Chiffchaff 
differs from Ph. c. collybita, and as Dr. Hartert and Dr. Stein- 
bacher have both compared the type and consider it to belong 



Vol. Mi.] 64 

to the typical form, it is evident that the name Ph. brehmii 
can no longer be used. I propose, therefore , to name the 
Iberian Chiffchaff 

Phylloscopus collybita ibericus, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Differs from Phylloscopus collybita collybita in 
being a little brighter, more yellowish -olive above and brighter 
yellow on the under wing and tail- coverts ; second primary 
longer, so that it is equal to 6/7 or 7 in 100 per cent, of males 
and hi 60 per cent, of females, against 26-5 per cent, of males 
and 13 per cent, of females in C. collybita. The legs are paler. 
The juvenile is decidedly brighter above and more yellow 
below than the juvenile of C. collybita. Song and eggs different 
to those of C. collybita (as many have recorded). 

Type. — In British Museum. Male, adult, Paul d'Argila, 
near Coimbra, Portugal, May 23, 1920, Wither by collection, 
no. 70/43. British Museum Reg. no. 1934.1.1.5045. 

Remarks. — I am greatly indebted to Dr. Steinbacher for 
kindly examining Homeyer's birds, and to Mr. Kinnear for 
obtaining for me a translation of Homeyer's description. 

Dr. James M. Harrison sent the following note on European 
Chaffinches and the description of a new race : — 

The work of P. A. Hens and J. G. van Marie (' Orgaan der 
Club van Nederlandshe Vogelkundigen,' Jahrg. vi. vol. 2, 
Oct. 1933, pp. 49-58), culminating in the recognition of the 
English race of the Chaffinch, Fringilla coelebs gengleri Kin., 
made it desirable to review the species and its races, my 
conclusions on this subject being given in a short note in 
'The Ibis' (April 1934, pp. 396-398). It occurred to me 
then that the range of F. c. gengleri might not extend to the 
northern limits of the British Isles. Unfortunately I had 
no material at the time to decide this point, but I have since 
been able, through the kindness of Mr. Philip A. Clancey, 
to examine an ample series of breeding material as well as 
some freshly moulted autumn and winter birds from S.W. 
Scotland — Renfrewshire, Lanarkshire, Dumbartonshire, and 
Stirling. These birds have been compared with material 
from Sweden, the south of England, Germany, Holland, 



65 [Vol. lvii. 

Switzerland, Western Siberia, Persia, Bulgaria, Thrace, 
Cyprus, Sardinia, and Crete, and are at once recognizable as 
being distinct. 

For the Scotch bird I propose the name 

Fringilla coelebs scotica, subsp. nov. 

Description. — General colour darker cinnamon-red, particu- 
larly on the ear- coverts and throat, than F. c. gengleri, and 
lacking the vinous-pink or vinous-red of F. c. coelebs. 

Distribution. — As known at present, S.W. Scotland. 

Type. — Adult male, Carmunnock, Lanarkshire, S.W. Scot- 
land, October 21, 1936. In my collection. 

Measurements of the Type. — Wing 88 ; culmen 15 ; tarsus 17 ; 
tail 72 mm. 

Measurements of the Co-types : — 

Co-type I. Male, April 23, 1936, Carmunnock, Lanark- 
shire, Scotland : — Wing 87 ; culmen 16 ; tarsus 18 ; tail 
67-5 mm. In my collection. 

Co-type II. Male, April 23, 1936, Carmunnock, Lanark- 
shire, Scotland : — Wing 87-25 ; culmen 15-5 ; tarsus 19-5 ; tail 
66 mm. In collection P. A. Clancey. 

Remarks. — The backs of the Scottish birds are, as in all races 
of Fringilla coelebs, variable, though taken on the whole they 
are somewhat darker in these parts than are those of the rest of 
the material with which they have been compared. Similarly 
the new subspecies shows the same variability in the number 
and extent of the white tips to the rectrices — that weak and 
inconstant character upon which the race F. c. gengleri was 
originally founded until its true and distinct differences were 
determined and clearly defined by the two authors quoted above. 

A series of eighteen breeding males from S.W. Scotland 
give the following measurements : — Wing 83-91 ; beak 15-17 ; 
tarsus 18-20 ; tail 61-5-72 mm. 

Mr. C. M. N. White sent the following description of a new 
form of Chukor from Crete : — 

Alectoris graeca scotti, subsp. nov. 

Description. — In having chestnut tufts on ear-coverts and no 
black on lores it diners at once from A . grseca and A . saxatilis ; 



Vol. lvii.] 66 

the absence of any olive -brown wash on the lower back 
distinguishes it from A . kleini ; it closely resembles A . Cypriotes, 
but is, in fresh autumn plumage, a darker and purer grey on 
the lower back and upper tail-coverts, and has a shorter wing. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male collected at Vrisis, 
Crete, on September 6, 1936, by C. M. N. White and A. E. Scott. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1936.10.18.1. 

Remarks. — Col. R. Meinertzhagen has already (Ibis, 1921, 
p. 138) commented upon the small size of Chukors from Crete. 
Our specimens fully confirm this, and the measurements given 
for the Cretan race are those taken by him together with those 
of our birds. It seems desirable therefore to separate the 
smaller form. 

Wing-measurements of A. g. scotti : — Six males, 153-163 ; 
two females, 148-151 mm. 

Wing-measurements of A. g. Cypriotes: — Fifteen males, 162- 
170 ; nine females, (151) 154-158 mm. 

The Marquis Hachisuka and M. Jean Delacour sent the 
following description of a new species :— 

Erythrura viridifacies, sp. nov. 

Description. — Male. General colour grass-green, darker on 
the upper parts, with concealed bases of feathers grey; upper 
tail-coverts dark crimson-red, with green bases; under tail- 
coverts and thighs brownish-buff ; tail graduated, with pointed 
feathers, the two central rectrices narrow, long and pointed, 
dark crimson ; the following pair bronze-green edged with 
crimson on the outer web and black in the centre, the others 
black edged with bronze -green on the outer web ; primaries 
and secondaries dull black, narrowly edged with green on the 
outer web ; under wing- coverts grey ; axillaries green. Iris 
dark brown ; beak black ; legs and feet pinkish- brown. 

Distribution. — Flat country around Manila, Luzon. 

Type. — Male, vicinity of Manila, Luzon, Philippine Islands. 
Specimen sent alive to California, August 1935 ; died November 
10, 1936. From W. S. Sheffler's collection, adult breeding ; 
Hachisuka collection. 

Measurements of the Type. — Wing 55 ; culmen 9 ; tail 
(growing) ; tarsus 16 mm. 



67 [Vol. lvii. 

Female. — Similar to the male, but slightly paler green 
above ; throat and breast pale buffish-green, passing to light 
bumsh-brown on the abdomen, flanks, and under tail-coverts ; 
upper tail-coverts pale bronze-green edged with orange- 
crimson ; rectrices dull black, the central pair tinged with 
bronze-green. Iris brown; bill black; legs and feet flesh- 
colour. 

Remarks. — Mr. E. H. Taylor, a resident of Los Baiios, 
Laguna Province, a town not greatly distant from Manila, 
found in his garden on June 26, 1920, ten Parrot-Finches 
which had flown into the tennis-court wire -netting with suicidal 
results. A few of these species came into the hands of 
McGregor, but could not be identified. Thereafter, for fifteen 
years, the bird escaped observation, and nothing further was 
known about it until 1935, when Dr. Canuto Manuel noticed 
venders in Manila peddling great numbers of them from 
April to July. McGregor and Manuel, in the ' Philippine 
Journal of Science,' lix. no. 3, March 1936, p. 325, identify 
them erroneously as Erythrura trichroa, and thought the birds 
were either of a migratory or of an introduced origin. 

Early in 1936 several hundreds of these unidentified Erythrura 
were imported from Manila to San Francisco. 

It is, however, evident from the very distinct characters of 
the birds that they represent an entirely new species which 
had so far been overlooked owing to its habitat. A similar 
case arose a few years ago with the Cochinchinese Amandava, 
which, although exported every year from Sargon in vast 
numbers, had never been collected scientifically. 

This is the only species of Erythrura in which the adult 
male has an entirely green head. 

Note. — A more detailed account, with a coloured plate, 
will be published elsewhere at a later date. 

Colonel R. Meinertzhagen sent the following descriptions 
of six new races from Mt. Kenya, Kenya Colony : — 

Francolinus jacksoni pollenorum, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Birds from the high bamboos of Mt. Kenya 
are more heavily streaked on the upper breast, the feathers 



Vol. lvii.] 68 

having narrower and slightly paler margins than birds from 
the Aberdares. There is slight individual variation, some 
birds closely approaching the typical form. 

Distribution. — The higher forest regions, bamboos and 
Hagenya, of Mt. Kenya, 9000-10,900 feet. 
■ Type. — In my collection. Female, Mt. Kenya, 10,900 feet, 
10 November, 1936. 

Remarks. — Fourteen adults from the Aberdares and nine from 
Mt. Kenya examined. 

Francolinus shelleyi theresae, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Not so richly marked below as F. s. elgonensis, 
and with black spotting on the upper breast. 

Distribution. — Above tree-level on Mt. Kenya (11,000- 
12,000 feet) on open moorland and light scrub, and on the 
highest ground of the northern Aberdares, a covey being seen 
on the actual summit of Satima. 

Type.— In my collection. Male, Mt. Kenya, 12,000 feet, 
November 20, 1936. 

Remarks. — Eight from Mt. Kenya, one from the Aberdares, 
and many from Mt. Elgon examined. 

Onychognathus tenuirostris raymondi, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Differs from Abyssinian birds in having the 
crown greener, not such a purplish- blue. 

Distribution. — Above tree -level on Mt. Kenya ; a moorland 
bird. 

Type.— Male, Mt. Kenya, 15,000 feet, February 16, 1936. 
In my collection. 

Remarks. — Nine males and four females examined from Mt. 
Kenya. Named after Mr. Raymond Hook, who accompanied 
us up to the moorlands of Kenya. Wings of males 153-160, 
culmen from skull 28-5-31 mm. Wings of females 145-150, 
culmen from skull 27-5-31 mm. 

Onychognathus tenuirostris theresae, subsp. nov. 
Description. — The males are very near O. t. raymondi, but 
the crown is slightly (not always) more purple. In the female 
the fringing of the throat and upper neck is less marked, giving 
the bird a less spotted appearance. 



69 [Vol. lvii. 

Distribution. — The higher levels of the Aberdare Mts., but 
descending well below tree-level, to 10,000 feet. 

Type. — In my collection. Adult female, Northern Aberdares, 
11,000 feet, March 29, 1936. 

Remarks. — Wings of seven males, 155-160, culmens from 
skull 29-5-33 mm. Wings of five females, 145-141, culmens 
from skull 29-30 mm. 

Turdoides melanops vepres, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Nearest to T. m. clamosus, but differs in having 
the upper» parts generally darker, especially on the forehead 
and crown. Ear- coverts dark brown. Underparts with pure 
white chin, breast uniform dark brown, much darker than in 
T. m. clamosus, and with definite pale margins to abdominal 
feathers, giving a squamate appearance not unlike the under- 
parts of Turdoides leucopygia hartlaubi. Under- wing without 
cinnamon. 

Distribution. — A single male, one of a pair, shot at Nanyuki, 
7000 feet, in thorn-scrub, on January 29, 1936. 
[ -- Type. — In my collection. Adult male, Nanyuki, Kenya, 
January 29, 1936. 

Measurements of the Type. — Wing 110 mm. 

Remarks. — This form has nothing to do with the sharpei nor 
the tenebrosus groups. 

Micropus melba striatus, subsp. nov. 

Description. — A single bird obtained near Nanyuki (N.W. 
lower slopes of Mt. Kenya), at 6900 feet, on March 7, 1936, 
differs from M . a. maxima from Ruwenzori in having the lower 
breast and abdomen almost heavily streaked, whereas in the 
former it is pure white (two examined). The specimen is 
much darker and with a broader breast-band than M. a. afri- 
cana. 

Type. — In my collection. Adult female, Nanyuki, 6900 feet. 
Lower slopes of N.W. Mt. Kenya. The bird had bred. 

Measurements of the Type. — Wing 220 mm. 

Remarks. — We often saw large white -bellied Swifts on the 
moorland of Mt. Kenya. They were dark birds as our Nanyuki 
specimen, and they doubtless breed there, as we saw birds 



Vol. lvii.] 70 

entering cliff-holes at over 14,000 feet, but we never obtained 
a specimen. Swifts have a considerable daylight altitudinal 
distribution, their powerful flight making a descent of 8000- 
9000 feet for food a matter of a few minutes. I have little 
doubt that this will prove to be the breeding form of Alpine 
Swift from the highest ground on Mt. Kenya. 

Mr. David Bannerman forwarded the following note on the 
Fan-tailed Warbler, Schoenicola brevirostris, of which he 
considered two races should be recognized : — - 

In the ' Systema Avium JEthiopicarum,' while listing all 
the Fan-tailed Warblers from the whole of Africa under the 
name & brevirostris Sundevall, Mr. Sclater draws attention 
to the fact that " Uganda birds are certainly darker in colour 
than those from Natal." He goes on to point out that two 
names are available for the Uganda bird if it is required : — 

(i.) Sphenoeacus alexins Heuglin, J. f. O. 1863, p. 166 : 
Bahr el Ghazal (Gazelle River). 

(ii.) Schoenicola brunneiceps Reichenow, Orn. Monatsb. xv. 
1907, p. 172 : Asholi or Acholi country, N. Uganda. 

We have over sixty specimens from all parts of its range 
in the British Museum, and examination of this large series 
shows that two races at least can be accurately determined. 

The type-locality of Bradypterus brevirostris Sundevall 
(May 1850) is the Umlazi River in Natal, and this name 
antidates Catriscus apicalis Cabanis (published in the last 
half of 1850) with type-locality Kafhrland, Eastern Cape 
Province. 

Examination of the specimens in the British Museum show 
that birds from Natal, Zululand, Cape Province, Portuguese 
East Africa (Tete), Southern Nyasaland, and S. Rhodesia 
are paler and more fulvous in colour than birds from the 
more northern countries. 

To birds from countries in southern Africa enumerated 
above the typical name applies, and Schoenicola brevirostris 
brevirostris must be used for them. Occasionally an example 
appears with a darker crown than the majority from the same 
neighbourhood, but on the whole the pale coloration is uniform, 
although some birds are more fulvous in plumage than others. 



71 [Vol. lvii. 

On the other hand, I find that not only are the Uganda 
birds darker in colour of plumage throughout when 
compared with a Natal-Zululand series, but that these 
dark birds occur throughout the following countries : Uganda, 
Kenya, Abyssinia, N. Rhodesia, E. Belgian Congo, N. Angola, 
Cameroons, Northern Nyasaland, and Sierra Leone, as 
represented in the Museum collection. All are constant in their 
dark coloration, and particularly in their blacker tails. For 
these dark birds the first available name is that of Heuglin, 
mentioned above, and they must be named in future Schoenicola 
brevirostris alexinse Heuglin, with type-locality Bahr el Ghazal 
(Gazelle River), of which S. brunneiceps Reichw. becomes 
a synonym. 

Mr. David Bannerman also sent the following description of 
a Swamp-Warbler from Lake Tana (Tsana), which he proposed 
to name 

Calamoecetor leptorhyncha tsanae, subsp. no v. 

Most nearly allied to C. I. jacksoni (of which C. nuerensis 
is a synonym), differing from that bird in its much darker, 
more sooty- brown coloration, and in its larger dimensions. 
Bill, $ 15, $ 15-16; wing, <} 72, $ 63-68; tail, <y 65, 
$ 65-72 ; tarsus, $ 28, $ 28-30 mm. (1 <J, 3 ?§ measured). 

Type.— Adult male. British Mus. Reg. no. 1927.11.5.331, 
Achera Mariam, N. shore of Lake Tsana, 6000 feet, Abyssinia, 
May 31, 1926. Major R. E. Cheesman coll. 

Range. — Lake Tsana, Abyssinia. 

Field-notes. — Said by Major Cheesman to be plentiful in 
reed-beds. Several pairs were seen displaying and fighting on 
May 30. The song is described as like an inferior Nightingale, 
one or two bars only. Very local in its habitat, probably 
resident, and almost certainly breeds at Achera Mariam ; 
for additional field-notes see Ibis, 1935, p. 612. 

Note. — Admiral Lynes has drawn my attention to this bird 
being distinct from C. nuerensis, with which it had been in- 
corporated in the National Collection. Mr. W. L. Sclater, 
who was responsible for naming Major Cheesman 's collection, 
listed the four specimens obtained under the name mentioned 



Vol. lvii.] 72 

above in ' The Ibis,' 1935, p. 612 ; he has now asked me, 
as I am working on this group, to name the Lake Tsana bird, 
though he did not for various reasons do so at the time when 
he published his report (loc. cit.) on the Cheesman collection. 
He is in agreement that it should be kept distinct from G. nuer- 
ensis (=0. jacksoni). Lynes (Ibis, 1934, p. 43) had already 
pointed out that C. nuerensis was a synonym of C. jacksoni, 
the type of C. jacksoni being a young rufous -coloured bird. 

Mr. Bannerman also described a new race of Forest-Warbler, 
Apalis cinerea, from the Cameroon highlands, which he pro- 
posed to name 

Apalis cinerea funebris, subsp. no v. 

Adult male and female differ from A. cinerea cinerea in the 
more sooty-grey upper parts, darker crown and head, and 
under parts more dusky, not white washed with clear buff 
as in the typical subspecies. 

Type.— Adult male. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1926.8.8.573, Oku, 
west of Kumbo, Banso Mts., Cameroons, 7000 feet, February 8, 
1925. G. L. Bates collection. 

Measurements. — ^2 12 ; wing, $ 56, <j> 54-5 ; tail, $ 57, 
§ 55 ; tarsus 20 mm. 

Note. — Mr. Bates has already drawn attention to the 
remarkable area around Oku from which he has described 
so many dark races. The Forest- Warbler was omitted, 
as he shot only one, but both he and I overlooked the fact that 
he had already shot this bird at Bamenda, and it is almost 
as dark as the Oku bird. I would refer readers to Bates's 
remarks in Bull. B. O. C. 1. 1929, p. 34, for further information. 
As I am now dealing with this genus for my book, I take this 
opportunity to bestow a name upon the Oku Forest -Warbler, 
as it is so obviously distinct from Apalis cinerea cinerea. 

Mr. R. E. Moreau sent the following note on the Dioptrornis 
fischeri group : — 

In the ' Systema Avium ^Ethiopicarum ' ii. 1930, p. 408, 
Sclater treats as separate species D. fischeri Rchw., D. nyikensis 
(Shelley), D. toruensis (Hart.), and D. semicinctus Hart., but 



73 [Vol. lvii. 

with the proviso that the last may be only a race of D. fischeri. 
The geographical ranges of these four forms show no overlap. 
The subsequently described D. fischeri amani Sclater (Bull. 
B. 0. C. li. 1931, p. 112) has since been removed from this 
group, as it is a synonym of Alseonax cinereus kikuyuensis 
van Som. (vide Bull. B. 0. C. lvi. 1935, p. 19). 

Seven specimens of Dioptrornis recently received by the 
British Museum from the Mbulu District of Tanganyika 
Territory are all alike ; and they differ from topotypical 
material of D. fischeri in that their general colour is a paler 
slate, they are not so white on the lores, but are distinctly 
whitish on the forehead. In the last two characters the 
Mbulu birds agree with D. nyikensis, of which the type and 
three other Nyasaland specimens are available, together with 
eight from S.W. Tanganyika Territory (Lynes coll.). The 
Mbulu birds are, however, a trifle greyer, less brown, than 
the D. nyikensis specimens, but this may be due to the worn 
state of most of the latter and the age of some of the Nyasaland 
skins. 

Through the kindness of the New York Museum the type of 
D. semicinctus Hart, has been available for comparison. 
As it arrived after my return to Africa Capt. C. H. B. Grant 
was good enough to examine it for me. He reports that it is 
a good form, distinguished from D. fischeri by its smaller size 
(wing 81 mm.), duller appearance above, darker belly, and 
incomplete eye-ring ; from D. toruensis in being larger billed, 
darker above, and in having an eye-ring, though this is confined 
to above and below the eye only. 

Of D. toruensis van Someren has remarked (Nov. Zool. xxix. 
1922, p. 94) that it is " very like D. fischeri but lacking the 
white eye-ring round the eye," a point also stressed by Hartert 
(Bull. B. 0. C. xxxvii. 1915, p. 4). Another difference is that 
the wing of D. toruensis measures only 79-83 mm. (seven 
specimens) against 85-93 mm. in D. fischeri and D. nyikensis. 
I am of opinion that the four forms can be regarded as 
conspecific, as follows : — 

D. f. fischeri Rchw., Journ. fur Orn. 1884, p. 53 : Moeru Mt., 
Tanganyika Territory ; of which D. johnstoni (Shelley), 
P. Z. S. 1884, p. 555 : Kilimanjaro, is a synonym. 



Vol. lvii.] 74 

Distribution. — From the Imatong Mts. on the Sudan border 
and Mt. Elgon south throughout the Kenya Highlands to 
Kilimanjaro, Mt. Meru, and North Pare, which is probably 
its south-eastern limit, as I have failed to find it in South Pare 
or Usambara. 

(N.B. — The note in the ' Systema Avium iEthiopicarum ' 
to the effect that D. fiscJieri ranges " through the northern 
drier part of Tanganyika " is misleading, in that the bird is 
everywhere confined to the edges and vestiges of highland 
evergreen forest.) 

D. /. nyikensis (Shelley), Bull. B. 0. C. vii. 1899, p. 35 : 
Nyika Plateau, Northern Nyasaland ; of which D. trothse Rchw. 
Orn. Monatsber. 1900, p. 5 : Rungwe, S.W. Tanganyika Terri- 
tory, is a synonym. 

Distribution. — Mbulu District of northern Tanganyika 
Territory, south through Iringa to Nyasaland, where it is 
known only from the Nyika and from Dedza. Also in S.E. 
Belgian Congo (Marungu, but not Katanga : Chapin, ' Birds 
of the Belgian Congo,' i. 1932, p. 260). The habitat of this 
form is similar to that of D. f. fiscJieri. 

D. f. toruensis Hart., Nov. Zool. vii. 1900, p. 37 : Fort 
Gerry, Toro, Uganda ; of which D. kiwuensis Rchw., Vogel 
Afrikas, iii. 1905, p. 830 : Kivu, is a synonym. 

Distribution. — S.W. Uganda, Ruwenzori, and Kivu. 

D. f. semicinctus Hart., Bull. B. O. C. xxxvii. 1916, p. 4 : 
Kabakaba, N.E. Belgian Congo. 

Distribution. — Apparently only known from the type- 
locality. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following three notes and a description of a new race 
of White-throated Robin-Chat : — 

(1) On the Type-locality of Treron schalowi Reichenow, 

and the Distribution of the Races of Vinago wakefieldii 

(Sharpe) . 

Through the very great kindness of Dr. Stresemann, of the 

Zoological Museum, Berlin, we have been enabled to examine 

the type of Treron schalowi Reichenow, Orn. Cent. 1880, p. 108. 



75 [Vol. Mi. 

This specimen agrees with specimens in the British Museum 
collection from Damaraland and Matabeleland in general 
colour, particularly in lacking the nuchal band, and in the 
slight grey tinge in the otherwise green tail. The type- locality 
is given as " Diamant-felder, Siid Afrika," and this bird 
was in a small collection sent by Herr Premier-leutenant von 
Velthusen. 

Professor Oscar Neumann has kindly informed us, under 
date February 5, 1936, that the entry in the Berlin Museum 
register shows that this type-specimen was bought from 
Dr. Fischer in 1881 amongst other skins from various localities 
in East Africa, mostly from Mozambique and Zanzibar. 
This discrepancy in dates has no significance, as specimens 
were often entered in the Berlin Museum catalogue many years 
after they were received, and there is no doubt that this type 
was in the Berlin Museum in 1880. Leut. von Velthusen, 
afterwards Maj or Kriiger- Velthusen, owned a fine egg collection, 
but was never in Africa. The history of this specimen is clearly 
very unsatisfactory, and cannot apparently now be traced, 
but it is not the East African form, and neither could it have 
come from Griqualand West. The only diamond mines 
known in 1880 were in that area. 

Previous to 1880, Holub appears to have been the only 
collector in Griqualand West and who travelled from there 
to the Zambesi (see ' Seven Years in South Africa,' 1872- 
1879), and we are informed by Professor Oscar Neumann, 
under date August 20, 1936, that he collected many skins of 
birds, mammals, and other animals, which he presented to 
many governments, museums, societies, etc. His bird collection 
was some 400 skins (' Seven Years in South Africa,' ii. p. 472). 

The type of Treron schalowi could not have been collected 
by Dr. Bradshaw, who was also in the Zambesi area prior to 
1880, as all the birds he collected are now in the British 
Museum (Hist. Coll. Nat. Hist. Dep. Brit. Mus. 1906, 
p. 317). 

What evidence there is appears to point definitely to Holub 
having obtained the type of Treron schalowi, and that he gave 
the specimen either to Velthusen or Fischer. We incline to 



Vol. lvii.] 76 

the opinion that the entry in the Berlin Catalogue is incorrect, 
and that it was Velthusen who presented this specimen to 
the Berlin Museum, especially in view of Reichenow's statement 
in the original description, where only Velthusen is mentioned. 

On p. 171 of the Beit. Orn. Sudafr., 1882, Holub remarks, 
under Treron delalandi, T. calva, and T. nudirostris , that the 
two specimens he received were obtained by Walsh in the 
Zambesi Valley. Holub himself saw Green Pigeons in the 
Notuary Valley, Marico District, Western Transvaal, but 
could not obtain any specimens. Walsh was at one time 
( c Seven Years in South Africa,' ii. pp. 177 & 183) a soldier, and 
later a gaoler at Cape Town, and was proficient in the art 
of preserving bird-skins, and had come to the Zambesi district 
to carry on business in that way. 

As Holub resided at Kimberley, any specimens of his not 
labelled (and the type of T. schalowi has no original label) 
would have been considered as coming from there, i. e., 
" Diamant-felder." 

It is perfectly clear that the type of T. schalowi could not 
have come from Kimberley, and we cannot accept this locality 
any more than we can accept Asia or India of the early authors 
for African birds that do not occur in either place. 

On the evidence discussed above we propose to fix the 
type-locality of Treron schalowi Reichw. as North-eastern 
Bechuanaland, as Walsh was known to have been at Panda ma 
Tenka and Impalera in what was then Khama's country 
('Seven Years in South Africa,' ii. 1882, pp. 177 & 183). 
In the Ann. Trans. Mus. x. pt. 3, 1924, p. 124, Austin Roberts 
gives Griqualand West as the distribution of T. s. schalowi. 
This is misleading, as in a reply (March 11, 1936) to a letter 
from us Mr. Roberts kindly informs us that the only record 
he has is Reichenow's type, and that he has never seen any 
specimens from Griqualand West. 

Sclater, Fauna S. Afr. Bds. iv. 1906, p. 159, rightly considers 
Damaraland and Matabeleland birds to be T. schalowi. 

Our examination of the series in the British Museum 
collection shows that the distribution of the races of this 
Fruit Pigeon, as given in the ' Systema Avium ^Ethiopicarum,' 
i. 1924, pp. 176-177, must be changed, as follows : — 



77 [Vol. lvii. 

Treron wakefieldii wakefieldii Sharpe. 

Treron wakefieldii Sharpe, P.Z.S. 1874 for 1873, p. 715, 
pi. lviii. fig. 2 : Mombasa, Kenya Colony, of which Vinago 
schalowi chobiensis Roberts, Ann. Trans. Mus. xvi. 1935, p. 86 : 
Kasane, near mouth of Chobe River, northernmost Bechuana- 
land (with a distinct grey collar) becomes a synonym. 

Grey nuchal collar distinct. Wing 147-174 mm. (twenty-one 
specimens). 

Distribution. — Eastern Kenya Colony from Lamu and Tana 
River southwards, eastern and southern Tanganyika Territory 
(Amani, Usambara, Rungwe), Portuguese East Africa, as far 
south as the Gorongoza Mts., to southern part of northern 
Rhodesia (Kafue River and Makalaka, west of Livingstone) ; 
and extreme north of Bechuanaland (Kasane, near mouth of 
Chobe River). 

Treron wakefieldii schalowi Reichw. 

Treron schalowi Reichenow, Orn. Cent. 1880, p. 108 : North- 
eastern Bechuanaland, of which Vinago schalowi var. damarensis 
Reichenow, Vog. Afr. i. 1901, p. 399 : Nukana, Okavanga 
River, Damaraland, South-west Africa, is a synonym. 

Grey nuchal collar practically absent. Wing 167-185 mm. 
(six specimens). 

Distribution. — Damaraland, south-west Afrca, to northern 
parts of Bechuanaland, and Southern Rhodesia. 

(2) On the Movements of the Lesser Cuckoo during the Non- 
breeding Season. 
We discussed this matter in the Bull. B. 0. C. lvi. 1936, 
p. 131, and confined Cuculus poliocephalus rochii to Madagascar. 
On September 26, 1936, Dr. James P. Chapin kindly wrote 
and drew our attention to records and specimens of this 
Cuckoo from the Belgian Congo in June and August. Through 
the kindness of the Royal Natural History Museum, Brussels, 
we have been able to examine the type of Cuculus stormsi 
Dubois, Bull. Mus. Hist. Belg. v. 1887, p. 3, pi. ii. : Region 
ctu lac Tanganyika, Belgian Congo, which has a wing-measure- 
ment of 168 mm., and therefore falls within the measurements 
of C. p. rochii, but unfortunately the specimen is not dated. 



Vol. lvii.] 78 

And through the kindness of the Tervueren Museum the loan 
of a not quite adult male from Bulaimu, Belgian Congo, dated 
June 30, 1912. This specimen has the right wing in moult, 
but in the left wing the third (longest) primary has not yet been 
dropped ; this gives a wing-measurment of 149 mm. This is 
within the measurment of C. p. poliocephalus. We also have 
to thank the Berlin Museum for the loan of three specimens — 
an undated adult male from Mabira, Uganda, with a wing- 
measurement of 168 mm. (this is the wing -measurement of 
C. p. rochii) ; a young female from Kissenji, Belgian Congo, 
dated June 26, 1908, wing 155 mm. ; and an unsexed young bird 
from Mtwara, near Mikindani, south-eastern Tanganyika 
Territory, dated December 24, 1909, wing 145 mm. These 
wing-measurements agree with either race. Of these five 
specimens only two are adult, both of which have the wing- 
measurements of C. p. rochii, and we must therefore admit 
that both C. p. poliocephalus and G. p. rochii visit Eastern 
Africa and the Belgian Congo during the non-breeding season, 
i. e., Guculus poliocephalus poliocephalus, breeding in Asia 
May to September, visits Africa October to April ; Cuculus 
poliocephalus rochii, breeding Madagascar October to April, 
visits Africa May to September. 

Cowan's note (Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinburgh, 1882, 
p. 142) that "His note changes considerably just before he 
takes his departure, whether to the low countries or across 
the sea, I cannot say," undoubtedly has a bearing on the 
movements to the mainland of Africa. 

But the reason for the east-to-west movement between 
November and April (Delacour, Ois. et la Rev. Franc. d'Orn. 
xi. 1932), i. e., during the breeding season, is obscure, and 
can have no bearing on the movement to the mainland. The 
possibility of the Lesser Cuckoo being resident and breeding 
in eastern Africa and the Belgian Congo should not be 
entirely discounted. 

(3) On the Races of the White -throated Robin-Chat. 

Sclater, ' Systema Avium iEthiopicarum" ii. 1930, p. 476, 
places Callene albigularis Reichenow in the genus Bessonornis ; 
and on p. 480 places Callene m,acclounii Shelley in the genus 



79 [Vol. lvii. 

Alethe. The type of C. macclounii is in the British Museum, 
and through the kindness of Dr. Stresemann, of the Berlin 
Museum, we have had the loan of the type of C. albigularis. 
There is no doubt that both should be placed in the same 
genus, i. e., Bessonornis. Through the kindness of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Massachusetts, we have had the loan 
of an adult female specimen of Bessonornis albigularis poroto- 
ensis Bangs & Loveridge (No. M.C.Z. 148660, which is recorded 
in Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. lxxv. no. 3, 1933, p. 194). The 
British Museum also has the type of Alethe macclouniei njombe 
Benson. We have also had the loan of a female from Berlin 
which is one of a pair presented by Lynes to that Museum 
and recorded in the J. f. 0. 1934, p. 83, under Alethe mac- 
clounii. Someone in the Berlin Museum has quite correctly 
named this specimen Bessonornis albigularis. 

As C. albigularis is now placed in the genus Bessonornis, 
it is preoccupied by Bessonornis albigularis Tristram, 1867, 
and therefore Reichenow renamed his Gallene albigularis, 
Bessonornis grotei. 

The separation of these birds into two different genera 
caused Benson to rename Bessonornis grotei, and the Njombe 
birds agree perfectly with the type of G. albigularis (=B. grotei) ; 
and caused Bangs & Loveridge to rename Bessonornis mac- 
clounii Shelley, as the female specimen we have examined 
agrees perfectly with northern Nyasaland specimens. Benson 
did not compare the Njombe birds with Bessonornis grotei, 
nor did Bangs & Loveridge compare their birds with Besson- 
ornis macclounii. 

This bringing together of specimens has elucidated the 
muddle, and we find that three races can be recognized, as 
follows : — 

Bessonoknis macclounii macclounii Shelley. 

Gallene macclounii Shelley, Bull. B. 0. C. xiii. 1903, p. 61 : 
Mwenembe, Nyika Plateau, northern Nyasaland ; of which 
Bessonornis albigularis porotoensis Bangs & Loveridge, Proc. 
N. Engl. Zool. Club. xii. 1931, p. 94 : Igale, Poroto Mts., 
Tukuyu District, south-western Tanganyika Territory, 
becomes a synonym. 



Vol. lvii.] 80 

Head and mantle washed with olive-brown. Wing 71- 
80 mm. 

Distribution. — Northern Nyasaland to Tukuyu District, 
Tanganyika Territory. 

Bessonornis macclounii grotei Reichw. 

Bessonornis grotei Reichenow, Verh. Orn. Ges. Bayern, 1932, 
p. 584 : Uluguru, Morogoro District, Tanganyika Territory ; 
of which Alethe macclouniei njombe Benson, Bull. B. O. C. lvi. 
1936, p. 100 : Njombe, southern Tanganyika Territory, becomes 
a synonym. 

Head and mantle slate-grey. Wing 73-80 mm. 

Distribution. — Morogoro District to Njombe District, Tan- 
ganyika Territory. 

Bessonornis macclounii mbuluensis, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Head and mantle darker slate, and below 
much darker than either B. m. macclounii or B. grotei. 

Distribution. — Mmlu District, Tanganyika Territory. 

Type.— Male, adult, Nou Forest (7000 feet), Mbulu District, 
Tanganyika Territory, collected by R. E. Moreau on January 14, 
1935, no. 2996. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1935.12.25.115. 

Measurements of Type. — Wing 87 ; culmen 15 ; tail 70 ; 
tarsus 31 mm. 

Remarks. — Another adult male has a wing of 82 mm. 

In all three races the sexes are alike. 



NOTICES. 

The next Meeting of the Club will be held on Wednesday, 
January 13, 1937, at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, 
S.W. 7. The Dinner at 7 p.m. 

Members intending to dine must inform the Hon. Secretary, 
Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson, 16 Tregunter Road, S.W. 10, 
on the post-card sent out before the Meeting. 



81 [Vol. Mi. 

Members who wish to make any communication at the 
next Meeting of the Club should give notice to the Editor, 
Capt. C. H. B. Grant, 58a Ennismore Gardens, S.W. 7. The 
titles of their contributions will then appear on the Agenda 
published before the Meeting. All MSS. for publication in 
the ' Bulletin ' must be given to the Editor before or at the 
Meeting. 



Agenda. 

Dr. J. P. Chapin will exhibit the type-specimens of Afropavo 

congensis. 



^ 



pUBCtf* 






3r •>->*. 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB. 



No. CCCCI. 

* The three-hundred-and-ninety-sixth Meeting of the Club was 
held at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on 
Wednesday, January 13, 1937. 

Chairman : Mr. G. M. Mathews. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Aoland ; W. B. Alexander ; 
E. C. Stuart Baker; D. A. Bannerman; Miss P. Barclay- 
Smith ; F. J. F. Barrington ; A. W. Boyd ; P. F. Bun yard ; 
Dr. J. P. Chapin ; Hon. Guy Charteris ; Brig.-Gen. G. v. H. 
Clarke ; H. P. 0. Cleave ; Major-Gen. Sir Percy Z. Cox ; 
A. Ezra; Miss J. M. Ferrier; H. A. Gilbert; Miss E. M. 
Godman ; Mrs. T. E. Hodgkin ; P. A. D. Hollom ; Dr. K. 
Jordan; Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain; Miss E. P. Leach; 
Miss C. Longfield ; Dr. P. R. Lowe ; W. P. Lowe ; C. W. 
Mackworth-Praed ; J. H. McNeile ; Lieut.-Col. H. A. F. 
Magrath; Col. R. Meinertzhagen ; C. Oldham; B. B. 
Osmaston; Mrs. J. B. Priestley; Miss G. M. Rhodes; 
W. L. Sclater; D. Seth-Smith; Major A. G. L. Sladen 
(Hon. Treas.); C. R. Stonor; Miss D. L. Taylor; Dr. A. 
Landsborough Thomson (Hon. Sec); B. W. Tucker; Miss 
E. L. Turner; Mrs. JI. W. Boyd-Watt; H. F. Witherby; 
C. de Worms. 

[January 29, 1937. J a vol. lvii. 



Vol. lvii.] 84 



—Miss T. Clay; Lady Elizabeth Lindsay; 
Mrs. Mackworth-Praed ; H. W. Mackworth-Praed; 
Mrs. Sclater; Miss B. N. Solly; Mrs. Tucker; G. F. 
de Witte. 

Members of the Club, 45 ; Guests, 8. 

Dr. James P. Chapin exhibited the type-specimen and 
made the following remarks on 

The Discovery of Afropavo congensis. 

This story has already been told in some detail in the ' Revue 
de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines,' xxix. Nov. 1936, 
pp. 1-6 ; but as I show you the two mounted specimens, 
the only ones yet known, I may be permitted to repeat a few 
of the salient facts. 

No one, surely, could have suspected that such a bird 
existed in the Congo forest except myself, and that only 
because in 1913 I had found a single secondary quill, adorning 
a native hat, at Avakubi, in the Ituri Forest. For twenty- 
six years I was puzzled by that feather, and preserved it 
carefully. In 1921 I brought it to Europe, together with 
a number of other feathers collected in the same way, but 
nowhere was I able to match it, nor were any of my friends 
able to offer any suggestion as to its origin. At one time 
I was almost ready to announce that Africa must harbour 
a large gallinaceous bird still unknown, and then my courage 
must have failed me, for I did nothing. 

When at last I happened upon two mounted specimens, 
without locality, in the Congo Museum, where they had been 
since 1914, I felt confident from the start that they could not 
be hybrids of any sort, mainly because of my feather. Within 
a few days I had additional evidence from Monsieur de 
Mathelin de Papigny, who had eaten one in 1930 at Angumu, 
in the eastern Congo. At this place there is a gold-mine, 
located in the midst of a heavy forest that was almost without 
native inhabitants. 

Monsieur de Mathelin was anxious that we should secure 
additional specimens, and at once communicated with the 
doctor stationed at the mine. We now have word that two 



85 [Vol. lvii. 

black workmen there claim to have seen this Congo Peacock 
in the vicinity of Angumu during the month of December 
1936 ; so there is every likelihood that within a relatively 
short time more specimens can be obtained. I even have 
hopes of being able to visit Angumu myself, in order to learn 
more about the haunts and habits of the bird, and to determine 
whether the bird found at Angumu is racially identical with 
the type. 

Afropavo congensis is assuredly the most interesting new bird 
that has been discovered in Africa for many years past. 
Apart from Quails, Partridges, Francolins, and the Stone- 
bantam, no genus of Phasianidse (in the restricted sense) 
was previously known from tropical Africa. This bird, 
which I firmly believe to approximate an ancestral stage in 
the development of the true Peacocks, seems to be a left-over 
from the time when a broad area of equatorial rain-forest 
extended from West Africa to Burma and beyond. 

Dr. Percy Lowe said that as regards the stumps of what 
had doubtless been some sort of duplicate crest springing 
from the vertex of this interesting bird, he was as much at 
a loss to explain their morphology as the lecturer. They 
were disposed in small groups of four or five springing from 
a series of pits or fovea sunk apparently in the epidermal 
and subcutaneous tissues. With a pair of forceps he had 
taken hold of one of these stumps and had kept up a steady 
pull, with the result that in the end he pulled out a long and 
thick grass-like stem which measured 23 mm. in length. 
Unless there was a deep frontal or parietal depression on the 
vertex of the skull it was difficult to say from whence such 
a specialized crest-feather, entirely devoid of barbs and 
barbules, and very stiff and hard, could have come, for in 
any ordinary bird of the same size and nature it was long enough 
to have penetrated well into the bird's brain. Although much 
thicker and stronger, they reminded him of the crest -plumes 
seen on the head of a Crowned Crane ; but their actual 
appearance in the bird suggested that they had been cut 
off or removed at the level of the skin by some outside agency. 

Dr. Chapin in his description of this remarkable new bird 
had alluded to the Pheasant -like Lophura. This reminded 



Vol. lvii.l 86 

the speaker that in a paper published in ' The Ibis ' of 1933, 
pp. 340-341, he had suggested that the fossil bones found in 
the Miocene of France, and referred by Milne-Edwards to the 
genus Phasianus (Ph. altus, medius, and desnoyersi), and subse- 
quently by Lambrecht to a new genus Miophasianus, might 
more properly be referred to the genus Lophurus. He had 
suggested this on account of the remarkably long tarso- 
metatarsus which characterized these fossil species. 

Afropavo had similarly a very long tar so -metatarsus, and 
although he did not for a moment suggest that Afropavo was 
a Lophura, the thought occurred to him that these Miocene 
so-called Pheasants of France might equally well have been 
generalized Peacocks or Lophuras. The Miocene period in 
France was characterized by a tropical climate and fauna, 
and as the climate became colder in the Pliocene and subse- 
quent periods, the way to warmer conditions in Africa was 
open to the fauna by means of land bridges across the 
Mediterranean. Might not the Ituri Forest represent the last 
sanctuary of a generalized Peacock which formerly lived in 
Europe ? 

Mr. H. A. Gilbert made the following remarks on British 
Duck Decoys, based on his Report to the British Section of 
the International Committee for Preservation of Birds. (Sub- 
Committee on the Enquiry into the Status of the Anatidse in 
Europe.) : — 

Since ' British Duck Decoys of To-day ' (Whitaker) was 
published in 1918, many decoys have gone out of action. 
There are at present five decoys in full use, namely : — 
Borough Fen (Northants). 
Fritton (Suffolk). 
Orwell Park (Suffolk). 
The Grange (Essex). 
Orielton (Pembrokeshire). 
In addition, there are six more " pipe " decoys partly in 
use : — 

Boar stall (Bucks). Used by the owner to supply 
himself and his friends. 



87 [Vol. lvii. 

Berkeley (Glos.). Not used for last five years, but now 
reconditioned. 

Abbotsbury (Dorset). Sparingly used ; chiefly for the 
owner and his friends' requirements. 

Marsh House (Essex). One pipe restored and used 
during week-ends only. 

Wretham (Norfolk). Two pipes in repair, but rarely 
used. 

Hamptworth (Wilts). Two pipes, rarely used. 
The average number of duck caught in British decoys 
during the last ten years is 11,767 per annum. 

Mr. R. H. W. Pakenham has forwarded to the British 
Museum of Natural History an adult male specimen of 
Charadrius forbesi (Shelley) which was collected by himself 
at Kigoma, western Tanganyika Territory, on October 20, 
1935. Mr. Pakenham remarks that he saw several on October 
15 and 20, 1935, on the fringes of swamps on the Simbo and 
Mwandiga roads within some three miles of Kigoma, and 
obtained a female on October 15, 1935. Neither was breeding 
(both having unenlarged sex organs), and the stomachs con- 
tained mud and vegetable matter. The wing of the male 
measures 130 mm. This is the first record of this species 
occurring in East Africa, its previous known range being from 
Portuguese Guinea to Cameroon, at Kisantu, Matadi- 
Leopoldville Railway, western Belgian Congo, and Kasama, 
north-eastern Northern Rhodesia. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praei> 
sent the following three notes : — 

(1) On the Races of Vinago delalandii (Bp.). 

In the Syst. Av. ^Ethiop. i. 1924, p. 176, Sclater recognizes 
only one form ; but in vol. ii. 1930, p. 849, he recognizes 
three races, and rightly points out that Vinago orientalis 
Gunning & Roberts is a race of this species and not of Vinago 
wakefieldii. Van Someren in the Bull. B. O. C. xl. 1919, p. 21, 
gives wing-measurements of V. d. granti as 150-160, and of 

«3 



Vol. lvii.] 88 

V. d. delalandii as 178-190 mm. The type of V. d. granti, 
which is in the British Museum (Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 
1919.4.10.21), has a wing-measurement of 165 mm. Vincent 
(Ibis, 1934, p. 526) remarks that his Portuguese East African 
specimens show " absolute intergradation " between V. dela- 
landii and V. wakefieldii. With this we are unable to agree, 
as the distinction between the two species is well marked, 
and Mr. Vincent's specimens are, in our opinion, clearly 
V. delalandii. 

Wing-measurements (in millimetres) of the 82 specimens 
in the British Museum collection give : — 

Cape Province, 177 (one specimen) ; Natal, 162-172 (five 
specimens) ; Zululand, 167-178 (four specimens) ; Transvaal, 
166-186 (seven specimens) ; Rhodesia, 169-182 (thirteen 
specimens) ; Portuguese East Africa, 162-174 (twelve speci- 
mens) ; Nyasaland, 161-178 (thirty specimens) ; Tanganyika 
Territory, 158-172 (nine specimens) ; Zanzibar, 161 (one 
specimen). 

As these measurements show very considerable variation 
in the same area, and as the characters given by Gunning and 
Roberts and van Someren for their races do not hold good 
when critically examined, we are unable to recognize more 
than one form of this Fruit Pigeon, i. e. : — 

ViNAGO DELALANDII (Bp.). 

Phalacrotreron delalandii Bonaparte, Comp. Rend, xxxix. 
1854, p. 873 : Durban, Natal, South Africa ; of which Vinago 
orientalis Gunning & Roberts, Ann. Trans. Mus. hi. 1911, 
p. 109 : Boror, Quelimane Province, Portuguese East Africa, 
and Vinago delalandei granti van Someren, Bull. B. O. C. xl. 
1919, p. 20 : Kilwa Kisiwani, Lindi District, Tanganyika 
Territory, are synonyms. 

Distribution. — Eastern Cape Province, Natal, Zululand, 
Transvaal, eastern Bechuanaland, eastern Southern Rhodesia, 
eastern Northern Rhodesia, Portuguese East Africa, Nyasa- 
land, to eastern and central Tanganyika Territory as far 
north as the Dodoma, Kilosa, and Dar-es-Salaam Districts, 
Zanzibar. 



89 [Vol. lvii. 

(2) On the Races of the European Cuckoo which visit Eastern 
Africa in the non-breeding Season. 
It is of course well known that Cuculus canorus canorus 
Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 10th ed. 1758, p. 110 : Sweden, occurs 
in the non-breeding season over the greater part of the African 
continent, but this has been rather complicated in recent years 
by the recognition of a Spanish and Portuguese breeding 
race, which is said to be smaller, under the name Cuculus 
canorus bangsi Oberholser, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, xxxii. 
1919, p. 22 : Spain, of which Stresemann (Orn. Monatsb. 
xxxvi. 1928, p. 19) records female specimens from Karema, 
March 2, 1883, and Msamvia River, South Ufipa, March 23, 
1909, in south-western Tanganyika Territory, and gives wing- 
measurements as 192 and 197 mm. This has led us to examine 
the African material in the British Museum together with 
material from Europe, and we append the results of measure- 
ments we have taken, together with some of Spanish and 
Portuguese specimens kindly sent to us by Mr. H. F. Witherby, 
and on which his remarks in 'The Ibis,' 1928, p. 630, are based. 

England and other 
northern and central 
Spain and Portugal. European countries. 



Wing. Tail. Wing. Tail. 

Males 217-220 177-179 mm. 214-236 167-190 mm. 

Females 186-207 151-161 „ 198-225 155-170 „ 



Males 213-221 150-155 

Females 192-210 136-156 



Mr. Witherby's measure- 
ments of birds at 
Madrid and Tring. 



Our measurements in particular show that there is a com- 
plete overlap between Spanish and northern European birds 
both in wing- and tail-measurements, so that it is quite 
impossible to differentiate between them when out of their 
breeding areas. Cuculus canorus bangsi may be considered 
by Palsearctic ornithologists as a recognizable race, but we 
are by no means satisfied about it ; moreover, the Spanish and 
Portuguese breeding bird is much more likely to visit West 
than East Africa. We are, therefore, only able to recognize 
the typical race as a migrant to Eastern Africa. 



Vol. lvii.] 90 

(3) The Subspecific Status of Centropus burchellii Swainson 
and Centropus fasciipygialis Reichenow, and their 
relationship to the Central African forms. 

A further critical examination of the large series in the 
British Museum collection shows that the characters given 
by Claude Grant (Ibis, 1915, p. 428) by which C. fasciipygialis 
Reichenow (Orn. Monatsb. 1898, p. 23 : Quelimane, Portu- 
guese East Africa) may be distinguished from C. burchellii 
Swainson (Anim. Menag. 1838, p. 321 : Cape Province, South 
Africa) do not hold good, and as we can find no other characters, 
C. fasciipygialis becomes a synonym of C. burchellii. 

Centropus senegalensis (Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. 12th ed. i. 1766, 
p. 169 : Senegal), C. superciliosus Hempr. & Ehr. (Symb. 
Phys. fol. R, 1828, pi. xi. : Southern Arabia), C. monachus 
Riippell (N. Wirbelth. Vog. 1837, p. 57, pi. xxi. fig. 2 : Kulla, 
Northern Abyssinia), and C. burchellii Swainson are all 
closely related, inasmuch as all have barred upper tail- coverts 
in the juvenile ; but whereas neither C. senegalensis nor 
C. monachus have barred upper tail-coverts in the adult, 
the other two have these parts barred. Sclater, Syst. Av. 
iEthiop. i. 1924, p. 186, places C. burchellii as a race of 
C. senegalensis. We can see no more reason for this arrange- 
ment than for placing it as a race of either of the other two, 
and, in fact, it might be considered much nearer to C. monachus 
with its blue head than to C. senegalensis with its green head ; 
but neither C. senegalensis nor C. monachus have barred upper 
tail- coverts in the adult, nor are there any bars at the base 
of the tail-feathers of the juveniles as is the case in C. super- 
ciliosus and C. burchellii. Of these four only C. burchellii 
can be considered as a race, the other three overlapping in 
their distribution. 

As we have already stated, C. superciliosus and C. burchellii 
agree in both having barred upper tail- coverts and barred 
bases to the tail-feathers in both young and adult, and it 
would therefore appear that they are more closely related to 
each other than C. burchellii is to either C. senegalensis or 
C. monachus. This view is supported by the earlier confusion 
between C. superciliosus and C. burchellii in South Africa, 



91 [Vol. lvii. 

a point that has boon cleared up by Austin Roberts, Ann. 
Transv. Mus. iv. 1914, p. 175, and Claude Grant, Ibis, 1915, 
p. 425, where it was shown that the young bird of C. burchellii 
had a superciliary streak and that all records of C. superciliosus 
from south of the Zambesi were really the young of G. burchellii, 
and is further confirmed by two specimens in the British 
Museum collection (Brit. Mus. Reg. nos. 1923.4.15.43 and 
1911.12.23.986) : the one unsexed fully adult collected by 
Swynnerton at Dar-es-Salaam, Tanganyika Territory, on 
June 6, 1920, which agrees perfectly in the markings of the 
underparts with G. superciliosus , and above has on the head 
and neck a mixture of the dull coloration of C. superciliosus 
and the iridescent blue-back coloration of C. burchellii, with 
a very broken light- coloured superciliary streak ; the other, 
an adult female, collected by Boyd Alexander forty miles above 
Chishomba, Zambesi River, Portuguese East Africa, on 
October 27, 1898, agrees perfectly with G. superciliosus on 
the upper side, and below agrees perfectly with C. burchellii. 

The first specimen bears on its label the names C. supercilio- 
sus loandm, C. senegalensis fasciipygialis, and G. burchellii 
fasciipygialis, and Mr. Jack Vincent has remarked : "Is not 
this surely burchellii sp., despite the stronger streaking below ? 
— 29. 7. 32." ; and on the second specimen Mr. Vincent has 
written : " Full adult dress. Quite unusually plain below 
for C. superciliosus, but all else points to C. superciliosus. 
Not immature C. burchellii." These two birds can only be 
designated as Centropus superciliosus burchellii > Centr opus 
superciliosus loandm. It should be noted that other specimens 
from Dar-es-Salaam and near Zumbo are normal C. s. loandse. 

In view of the evidence we are of opinion that C. burchellii 
is not a race of C. senegalensis (see also Bannerman, Rev. Zool. 
Afr. x. 1922, p. 125), but can be considered as a race of 
C. superciliosus, and in this way we propose to treat it. 

Friedmann, Bull. 153, U.S. Nat. Mus. 1930, p. 281, reviews 
the subspecific names of C. superciliosus, but does not sum- 
marize his conclusions as to how many races he would recognize. 
Bowen, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Philad. lxxxiii. 1931, p. 33, 
recognizes a possible five races. We have studied this question, 
and agree with Sclater, Syst. Av. JSthiop. i. 1924, p. 187, 



Vol. lvii.] 92 

that only three races can be recognized, to which must now 
be added C. burchellii, making a total of four recognizable 
races, as follows : — 

Centropus superciliosus superciliosus Hemp. & Ehr. 

Centropus superciliosus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, Symb. Phys. 
fol. R, pi. xi. 1828 : Southern Arabia. 

Distribution. — Southern Arabia, Eritrea, Sudan, Abyssinia, 
British Somaliland, and Kenya Colony, except Kavirondo 
country. 

Centropus superciliosus burchellii Swains. 

Centropus burchellii Swainson, Anim. Menag. 1838, p. 321 : 
Cape Province, South Africa. 

Distribution. — South Africa, Portuguese East Africa, and 
Southern Nyastvland to southern Tanganyika Territory ; also 
eastern Northern Nyasaland (Kotakota and Karonga). 

Centropus superciliosus loandje C. Grant. 

Centropus superciliosus loandse Claude Grant, Bull. B. 0. C, 
xxxv. 1915, p. 54 : near Dalla Tando, Northern Angola. 

Distribution. — West Africa from Congo to Angola, eastwards 
to Northern Rhodesia and Zumbo on the Zambesi, Portuguese 
East Africa, Northern Nyasaland (Nyakowa and Mwanembe), 
Belgian Congo, Uganda, western Kenya Colony (Kavirondo), 
Tanganyika Territory, and Zanzibar. 

Centropus superciliosus sokotr^ C. Grant. 

Centropus superciliosus sokotrse Claude Grant, Bull. B. 0. C. 
xxxv. 1915, p. 55 : Adho Dimellus, Socotra. 

Distribution. — Island of Socotra. 

C. s. loandse comes down to the Zambesi near Zumbo, 
which is just within Portuguese East Africa, and where it 
intergrades with C. s. burchellii ; and C. s. burchellii goes north 
through the Quelimane and Mozambique areas of Portuguese 
East Africa to southern Tanganyika Territory, where it 
intergrades with C. s. loandse. The adult female from Karonga 
(Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1898.5.1.82), eastern Northern Nyasaland, 
has a distinct superciliary stripe, but otherwise is a normal 
C. s. burchellii. 



93 [Vol. lvii. 

NOTICES. 

The next Meeting of the Club will be held on Wednesday, 
February 17, 1937, at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, 
S.W. 7. The Dinner at 7 p.m. 

Members intending to dine must inform the Hon. Secretary, 
Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson, 16 Tregunter Road, S.W. 10, 
on the post-card sent out before the Meeting. 

Members who wish to make any communication at the 
next Meeting of the Club should give notice to the Editor, 
Capt. C. H. B. Grant, 58a Ennismore Gardens, S.W. 7. The 
titles of their contributions will then appear on the Agenda 
published before the Meeting. All MSS. for publication in 
the ' Bulletin ' must be given to the Editor before or at the 
Meeting. 



IMPORTANT CORRIGENDUM. 



The date of issue of the ' Bulletin,' No. CCCC, covering the 
Meeting of Wednesday, December 9, 1936, should read 
January 5, 1937, and not January 5, 1936. 



j> % ^ R 



D I "hr 



BULLETIN 

BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB. 






No. CCCCII. 



The three-hundred-and-ninety-seventh Meeting of the Club 
was held at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, 
on Wednesday, February 17, 1937. 

Chairman : Mr. G. M. Mathews. 

Members present : — Miss C. M. Acland ; W. B. Alexander ; 
Dr. D. A. Bannerman ; Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; J. Cunning- 
ham ; J. Delacour ; A. Ezra ; Miss J. M. Ferrier ; Miss E. M. 
Godman ; Capt. C. H. B. Grant (Editor) ; B. G. Harrison ; 
R. E. Heath; Major H. P. W. Hutson; Rev. F. C. R. 
Jourdain; N. B. Kinnear; Miss E. P. Leach; Miss C. 
Longfield; Dr. G. Carmichael Low; Dr. P. R. Lowe; 
C. W. Mackworth-Praed ; J. H. McNeile ; Dr. P. Manson- 
Bahr ; Dr. W. Norman May ; B. B. Osmaston ; Miss G. M. 
Rhodes; W. L. Sclater; D. Seth-Smith; Major M. H. 
Simonds ; Major A. G. Lambart Sladen (Hon. Treas.) ; 
Dr. A. Landsborotjgh Thomson (Hon. Sec.) ; B. W. Tucker; 
Mrs. H. W. Boyd Watt ; C. M. N. White ; H. F. Witherby ; 
C. G. M. de Worms. 

Quests :— P. W. E. Currie ; Miss C. E. Godman; Miss E. 
Le Coste; Miss P. Lambart Sladen; L. R. Waud. 

Members of the Club, 35 ; Guests, 5. 
[March 6, 1937. J a vol. lvii. 



Vol. lvii.l 96 

M. Jean Delacour, who has returned from a few months' 
visit to North America in 1936, made the following remarks 
on some of the wild birds that he had seen : — 

From October 10 to 13, I was the guest of Dr. John Phillips 
at Wenham, Massachussets. There is little cultivation 
nowadays in New England, and the country is almost 
completely wooded. Autumn colours are indescribably 
beautiful. We spent two days in New Hampshire looking 
for American Woodcocks, and in spite of a very strong north 
wind we saw a dozen birds. This lovely species is getting 
very scarce and may soon disappear. We saw only two 
Ruffed Grouse, which seem to have diminished in numbers. 
We saw also many Water-birds, particularly ducks. Wood 
Ducks and Black Ducks are very numerous, and we came 
across a good many Wigeon, Green- winged and Blue- winged 
Teal, and Lesser Scaup. Small birds are very scarce in New 
England, and it is the poorest country for Passerine birds 
that I have ever seen. 

In California bird-life is very abundant and attractive. 
I particularly wanted to see the wild geese in the Sacramento 
Valley. Mr. James Moffitt, the Curator of Birds in the Cali- 
fornia Academy of Sciences at San Francisco, and an expert 
on Water-fowl, kindly took me to the Buttes district on 
December 16 to 18. Early in the morning thousands of 
geese fly up from the marshes and alight on the corn-fields 
to feed on the grain which has been left on the soil after the 
harvest. It is a wonderful sight, and in three days we must 
have seen several hundreds of thousands. There are White- 
fronted and Lesser Snow-Geese in equal numbers, and perhaps 
not quite so many of each of the Cackling and Hutchin's 
Geese, and some Ross's Snow-Geese. Only one flock of the 
latter is known to exist, numbering about 10,000 and 
holding its own. All these geese spend the winter in California 
and go north to breed in April. The nesting grounds of Ross's 
Snow- Geese are still unknown. We also saw some large 
Tule Geese (Anser albifrons gambelli), a disappearing species. 
The large Canada Geese, which nest on the Calif ornian moun- 
tains, do not mix with the migrating geese, and we saw a few 
on higher ground, on the Sierra foot-hills, and also near the 



97 [Vol. lvii. 

bays. Whistling Swans are quite numerous, as well as 
surface-feeding ducks, particularly Pintails. We saw a good 
many Shovelers, Gadwalls, Wigeon, and Green-winged Teal, 
and we had the luck to come across a large flock of Sand-hill 
Cranes (about 800). There are everywhere thousands of Coots. 
Birds of Prey are quite numerous still, and we even saw some 
White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus), a vanishing species. 
The Yellow-billed Magpie, which has a curiously restricted 
range, is abundant in places, and Passerine birds in general 
are numerous both in species and numbers. In all the bays 
and coastal marshes of California Water-birds are common and 
not wild. These are completely protected on many of them, 
and there is only a two weeks open season in November in 
other places. Even on the small lakes and ponds of the 
city parks one sees a lot of wild duck, many of them diving 
species : Ruddy Ducks, Canvas-backs, Lesser Scaup, parti- 
cularly, with a few Ring-necks, Golden-eyes, and Buffle- 
heads. On Tomales Bay, north of San Francisco, we saw 
thousands of Black Brents and Surf-Scoters. There were 
a few American Velvet Scoters, but Black Scoters are hardly 
ever seen so far south. There were lots of Golden-eyes, 
Bume-heads, Ruddy Ducks, Wigeon, and some Teal and 
Pintails. Canvas-backs and Greater Scaup kept more to the 
interior of the bay. Different Grebes, two species of Pelican, 
several Gulls, Coots, Cormorants, etc., as well as a number 
of seals, helped to make the bay most attractive. Herrings 
were spawning, and it was amusing to see birds darting every- 
where to catch fish. Out at sea, along the coast, we saw 
many sea-lions in the water, a good many Mergansers, a few 
Harlequin-Ducks, and, on the rocks, I was much interested 
in small mixed flocks of Black Turnstones and surf- birds. 

Another interesting sight was the Californian Condors on 
the Lespe Canyon, some fifty mi)es north-east of Los Angeles. 
It is a narrow gorge in a beautiful mountainous country, 
and we could see four of these grand birds, which, in spite of 
strong protective measures, grow fewer every year. There 
are about a hundred left nowadays in the whole of California. 

Needless to say, I had a wonderful welcome from all ornitho- 
logists throughout America, and I was particularly pleased to 



Vol. lvii.] 98 

attend the A. O. U. Annual Meeting at Pittsburg in October, 
as well as the Audubon Societies' Convention in New York. 

The Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain exhibited a clutch of eggs 
taken at Constantine, Algeria, on May 16, 1920, and made 
the following remarks : — 

In 1920 Commander R. E. Vaughan, R.N., paid a visit to 
Algeria and collected a few eggs. Recently he sent me a list 
of some of these, and amongst them was a set of Prunella 
modularis from Constantine. As this species has never, 
to my knowledge, been found breeding in Africa, I asked 
for further particulars. He informed me that he found the 
nest in a bush above the gorge, and that bird, nest, and eggs 
were typical of this species. The only other Passerine birds 
which lay small blue eggs here are (Enanthe hispanica and Diplo- 
oticus, but the eggs when sent proved to have the characters 
of Prunella eggs rather than those of the other species named. 
P. modularis has been recorded as an occasional winter visitor 
to Marocco (Irby) and Algeria (Loche), but does not breed 
in southern Spain, and only in the mountains of Italy and, 
presumably, Sicily. It was not met with in Tunisia by 
Whitaker and does not breed in Greece, so that it is a somewhat 
remarkable extension of its breeding range to find it nesting 
well inland in eastern Algeria. Constantine lies high, about 
1000 feet above the Rhummel, and is about 87 km. from the 
coast. There are, of course, many cases where the presence 
of a bird has been first detected by the evidence of its eggs. 
Even in England the Marsh-Warbler (Acrocephalus palustris) 
was discovered as a breeding species by means of its eggs ; and 
a somewhat inconspicuous and skulking species may well 
remain unnoticed for many years. It will be interesting to see 
whether this record is confirmed by subsequent observation. 

Dr. Carmichael Low showed an interesting tumour in 
a Partridge, and remarked : — 

The bird rose late with a covey, but flew well and was then 
shot by Dr. Gilbert Scott. On examination a large tumour, 
about the size of a ping-pong ball (90x75 mm.), was found 



99 [Vol. IviL 

protruding from the lower part of its chest. This felt very 
hard and almost stony in consistency. An X-ray photograph, 
however, showed no sign of bone or calcification and the 
tumour appeared to be connected with and growing from the 
lower end of the sternum. A dissection confirmed this, and 
demonstrated that the centre of the tumour was cystic, 
containing necrotic material, this being surrounded by a dense 
fibrous wall, microscopic examination of which showed 
newly-formed fibrous tissue. The necrotic tissue micro- 
scopically showed a cellular structure like a sarcoma under- 
going degeneration. The tumour evidently originated in the 
bone and then gradually, as it grew, became surrounded by 
the fibrous capsule. There was no evidence of a parasitic 
origin, nor of tubercle. The bird, an adult, was shot on 
January 9, 1937. 

The Marquess Hachisuka sent the following note on 
first records of Merops persicus chrysocercus from Marocco : — 

In the October number of the ' Bulletin,' supra, p. 6, Dr. D. A. 
Bannerman records Merops persicus chrysocercus and states 
it to be the first record from Marocco. I would like to draw 
attention to the fact that Dr. Hartert and I both saw and 
collected a few specimens of this race of the Persian Bee-eater 
during our trip in 1927 from Tunisia to Marocco. This fact 
was published by Dr. Hartert in Nov. Zool. xxxiv. 1928, 
pp. 341, 344, 345, 348, 366. We collected them in the middle 
of April between Colomb Bechar and Beni-Ounif, western 
Algeria, and also in Figuig. Later, on May 23, in Marocco, 
a bird was observed sitting on a telegraph wire between 
Khemisset and the Oued Beth, not far from the river. This 
fact constitutes the first record from Marocco. 

Dr. Austin Roberts sent the following change of name : — 

Apalis thoracica drakensbergensis, nom. no v., 

for Apalis thoracica alticola Roberts, Ann. Trans v. Mus. 
xiii. 1929, p. 79 : Nelsburg, Carolina-Barberton road, 
eastern Transvaal; not Apalis alticola (Shelley), Bull. B. O. C. 
viii. 1899, p. 35 : Fife, north-eastern Northern Rhodesia. 

a3 



Vol. lvii.J 100 

Mr. G. L. Bates sent the following change of name : — 
Alseonax flavitarsus, nom. nov., 
for Alseonax flavipes Bates, Ibis, 1911, p. 522 : Camma River, 
Gaboon ; not Alseonax flavipes Legge, ' Stray Feathers,' 1875, 
p. 367 (a name proposed for the bird known in the ' Fauna of 
British India ' as Alseonax muttui). Mr. Sclater has called 
my attention to this prior use of the name Alseonax flavipes. 

Mr. Bates also sent the following note on the identity of 
Saxicola sennaarensis Seebohm, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. v. 1881, 
p. 391 :— 

Saxicola sennaarensis was described from a single specimen 
collected by P. E. Botta and said to have come from Sennar, 
which has been supposed to be a unique type. When Vice- 
Admiral Lynes in 1920 got two skins of a form of the group 
Cercomela familiaris at Dilling, in the Nuba Mountains, he sent 
them to be compared with the type of Saxicola sennaarensis 
at Paris, and they were there said to agree very well with that. 
He accordingly named his two specimens Cercomela familiaris 
sennaarensis (Seebohm). But Sclater (Bull. B. 0. C. xlix. 
p. 17) called attention to the fact that certain others of Botta 's 
birds said to have come from Sennar must really have been 
collected in south-western Arabia. Botta travelled in the 
district of Taiz, which must be considered as the type-locality 
of two other Chats which he discovered, and also the locality 
of the type -specimen of Saxicola sennaarensis. 

Noticing that the two species Cercomela familiaris and 
(Enanthe chrysopygia are coloured so exactly alike that the 
same description might apply to both, and that the measure- 
ments given in the description of Saxicola sennaarensis agree 
best with those of (Enanthe chrysopygia, I asked to have one 
of Lynes's above-mentioned specimens sent from the British 
Museum, together with an Arabian specimen of (Enanthe 
chrysopygia, for a fresh comparison of both with the type of 
Saxicola sennaarensis in the Paris Museum. M. Berlioz 
has made a more thorough examination than was made in 
Paris before. He says : " There cannot be the least doubt 
that our S. sennaarensis is to be referred to the Arabian bird 
called 8. chrysopygia, and is very different from the African 
bird called ' Cercomela familiaris sennaarensis.' ' 



101 [Vol. lvii. 

Therefore Saxicola sennaarensis Seebohm was described 
from a specimen of (Enanihe chrysopygia (De Filippi) collected 
by Botta, probably not at Sennar, but in the Taiz district 
of south-western Arabia. Lynes's specimens from the 
Nuba Mountains belong to the species called Cercomela 
familiaris, which no one else has ever obtained in that part of 
Africa. This C. familiaris group is in great need of com- 
prehensive revision of its subspecies, and also of its generic 
affinities, i. e., whether with Cercomela or Avith (Enanihe. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following descriptions of two new races of African 
birds : — 

(1) Geokichla piaggise rowei, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Differs from G. p. piaggise (Bouvier) in its 
more olive upper parts, and from G. p. kilimensis Neumann 
in having the orange -brown from the throat to flanks much 
paler. 

Distribution. — Loliondo Forest, northern Arusha District, 
northern Tanganyika Territory. 

Type. — Male adult, Loliondo Forest, Arusha District, 
northern Tanganyika Territory ; collected by E. G. Rowe on 
January 21, 1936 (collector's no. Loliondo, 301). 

Measurements of type. — Wing 99, culmen 19, tarsus 34, 
tail 79 mm. 

Remarks. — Two adult males (including the type), two adult 
females, and one immature male examined, all from Loliondo 
Forest, and collected by E. G. Rowe. Wing-measurements of 
adult male (collector's no. 292) 102 mm., and adult females 
(collector's nos. 173 and 302) 98 and 99 mm. No. 302 is the 
mate of the type and was shot with it. Named in honour of 
Mr. E. G. Rowe. 

(2) Apalis murina bensoni, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Differs from A. m. murina Reichw. in having 
an ash-coloured head and ear-coverts, in being paler slate-grey 
on the mantle and wings, and in having a slight buff tinge on 
the throat ; from A. m. youngi Kinnear in having the lower 



Vol. lvii.] 102 

flanks and belly yellow ; and from. A. m. rhodesim Gunning & 
Roberts in having the belly more lemon than buffy-yellow. 

Distribution. — Dedza and Chongoni Mts., Dedza District, 
Nyasaland. 

Type. — In the British Museum, adult male, Dedza Mt. 
(6500 feet), Dedza District, Nyasaland; collected by ^. W./t 
Benson on December 21, 1934. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1935.5.12. 
47. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 53, culmen 12, tail 50, tarsus 
22 mm. 

Remarks. — Seven specimens examined. Named in honour 
of Mr. A. W. Benson. 



Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
also sent the following two notes : — 

(1) On the Races of Streptopelia decipiens (Finsch & Hartl.). 

Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. i. 1924, p. 166, recognizes seven 
races ; Erlanger, J. f. O. 1905, p. 126, recognizes three races ; 
and Zedlitz, J. f. O. 1910, p. 346, and 1914, p. 647, recognizes 
six and seven. Friedmann, Bull. 153, U.S. Nat. Mus. 1930, 
p. 219, recognizes six races, but appears to have difficulty in 
placing the specimens he enumerates, stating that they are 
intermediate and confusing. 

The series in the British Museum collection shows that 
although there is not a very great amount of individual 
variation in birds from the same area, there is sufficient to 
suggest that some of the races have been founded on this, 
and not on characters that are borne out by the series 
examined. 

We are therefore able to recognize only four races, as 
follows : — 

Streptopelia decipiens decipiens (Finsch & Hartl.). 

Turtur decipiens Finsch & Hartlaub, Vog. Ostafr. 1870, 
p. 544 : Dongola, Sudan. 

Belly and under tail- coverts grey. 

Distribution. — Western Abyssinia and the Sudan to central 
Uganda (Lango). 



103 [Vol. lvii. 

Streptopelia decipiens ambiguus (Boc). 

Turtur ambiguus, Bocage, Orn. Angola, 1881, p. 386 : 
Dombe, South Angola. 

There are no specimens in the British Museum collection 
from Angola — the specimens from south-east Belgian Congo 
and Tete on the Zambesi are somewhat similar to S. d. decipiens, 
and may not be true S. d. ambiguus. 

Distribution. — Southern Angola to south-east Belgian Congo 
and Tete on the Zambesi. 

Streptopelia decipiens perspicillata (Fisch. & Reich.). 

Turtur perspicillata Fischer & Reichenow, J. f. O. 1884, 
p. 179 : Nguruman, north end of Lake Nation, southern Kenya 
Colony ; of which Turtur ambiguus permistus Reichenow, Vog. 
Afr. hi. 1905, p. 808 : Maliwungu, southern Tanganyika 
Territory ; Turtur decipiens griseiventris Erlanger, J. f. 0. liii. 
1905, p. 126, pi. vi. fig. 2 6 : Artu, eastern Abyssinia ; Turtur 
decipiens elegans Zedlitz, Orn. Monatsb. 1913, p. 59 : Afgoi, 
Webi Shebeli, Italian Somaliland, and Streptopelia fulvo- 
pectoralis Granvik, J. f. O. 1923, Sonderheft, p. 54, pi. i. : 
Kendu, Kavirondo, Kenya Colony, are synonyms. 

Chest pale rose-pink ; belly white ; under tail-coverts 
pale grey, in some specimens white with only traces of grey, 
especially at the base of the feathers. 

Granvik, Orn. N.W. Kenya Colony, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr. 
xxv. 1 & 2, 1934, p. 20, remarks, under S. d. permista: " My 
birds are typical permista, with pure white belly and under tail- 
coverts." But Reichenow's description of his T. a. permistus 
reads : " Under tail-coverts lighter grey as in T. ambiguus , 
and having white edges." 

Distribution. — Central Abyssinia, British and Italian Somali- 
land, Kenya Colony, and Tanganyika Territory to Nyasaland 
(Fort Johnston and Port Herald). 

Streptopelia decipiens shelleyi (Salvad.). 

Turtur shelleyi Salvadori, Cat. Bds. B.M. xxi. 1893, p. 419 : 
Niger River. 

Belly and under tail-coverts grey, above paler than 8. d. deci- 
piens. 

Distribution. — Senegal to Lake Chad. 



Vol. lvii.] 104 

(2) On the Status of Pachycoccyx validus canescens Vincent, 
Bull. B. O. C. liii. 1933, p. 129 : Nhauela, Quelimane 
Province, Portuguese East Africa. 

Mr. Vincent gives as characters the greyer appearance 
of the entire upper side, dark grey tail, and larger spots, 
especially on the upper tail-coverts. We have examined this 
specimen very critically and compared it with five adults in 
the British Museum collection, including one from Zomba, 
Nyasaland, and another from Dikulwe Valley (=Likulwe 
River), Haut Luapula, south-eastern Belgian Congo. These 
two specimens, which are sexed male and female respectively, 
are rather browner above than the type of P. v. canescens, 
and not as dark above as a male and female from the Bahr-el- 
Ghazal and a female from the Cameroons. We agree with 
Vincent that the type of his P. v. canescens is in " beautifully 
fresh plumage," whereas it is clear that all the other five 
specimens are not nearly so fresh, and all show signs of 
wearing ; but the male from Zomba, when carefully compared 
with the male from the Bahr-el-Ghazal, is found to agree very 
closely with it, and we do not think that Zomba and Nhauela 
specimens can be separated into different races. 

We are therefore of opinion that there is a slight individual 
variation, and that the characters given by Vincent are due 
partly to this cause and partly to his specimen being in re- 
markably clean unworn dress. We thus find that P. v. canescens 
Vincent must become a synonym of Pachycoccyx validus 
(Reichw.). 



105 



[Vol. Ivii. 



A Correction. 

Mr. C. W. Benson sent the following corrections to his note 
on Apalis bamendse bensoni (Vincent) in the ' Bulletin,' 
no. cccxciv., dated April 2, 1936, p. 102 : — 

P. 102, line 7, " Usumbura " should read " Usambara." 
P. 102. Table of measurements : — 



.For : 


' 


Culmen 








Locality. Sex. 


from 

base of 

skull. 


Wing 


. Tail. 


Artisornis 
metopias. 


fMt. Rungwe, N.E.\ 
| Tanganyika. J Male - 
-\ ,, . . Female. 
| „ .. Male. 


13 

15-5 
16 


48 

44 
47 


49-5 

35 
40 




[_ „ . . Female. 


15-5 


47 


In moult. 


Read : 










Apalis 
bamendse 
strausse . 


1 Mt. Rungwe, \ 
j S. Tanganyika. J 


13 


48 


49-5 


Artisornis 
metopias. 


f N.E. Tanganyika. Female. 
^ „ . . Male. 

„ . . Female. 


15-5 

16 

15-5 


44 

47 

47 


35 

40 

In moult. 




NOTICES. 









The next Meeting of the Club will be held in conjunction 
with the Annual Dinner of the British Ornithologists' Union 
on Wednesday, March 10, 1937. The Dinner will be at 6.45, 
for 7 p.m., at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7. 
The Meeting will be at approximately 8.30 p.m., in the hall 
of the Royal Geographical Society, Kensington Gore, S.W. 7. 
Two private buses, each making two journeys, will transport 
members from the hotel to the hall. 

Members who intend to dine, and who have not already 
notified the Hon. Secretary of the Union, must inform the 
Hon. Secretary of the Club, Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson, 
16 Tregunter Road, S.W. 10, on the post-card sent out before 
the Meeting. Early replies will facilitate seating. 



Vol. lvii.] 106 

Members who wish to make any communication at the 
next Meeting of the Club should give notice to the Editor, 
Capt. C. H. B. Grant, 58a Ennismore Gardens, S.W. 7. The 
titles of their contributions will then appear on the Agenda 
published before the Meeting. All MSS. for publication in 
the ' Bulletin ' must be given to the Editor before or at the 
Meeting. 



Agenda. 

Colour Film. — Alberta muskegs. Dr. Wm. Rowan. 
Films. — Blackcock displaying, etc., etc. A. S. Phillips. 

Bird Sanctuary (Fame Islands). Oliver G. Pike. 
Slides and Films. — Pochard, Water-Rail, Sparrow-Hawk. 
Anthony Buxton. 









i"\ 



• *^0 BULLETIN 



\^ ^X> OF THE 

BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB. 



4 




No. CCOCIII. 



The three-hundred-and-ninety-eighth Meeting of the Club 
was held at the house of the Royal Geographical Society, 
Kensington Gore, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, March 10, 1937, 
preceded by a Dinner at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, 
S.W. 7, in conjunction with the Annual Dinner of the British 
Ornithologists' Union. 

Mr. H. F. Witherby, the President of the B. O. U., took 
the Chair during the Dinner, and Mr. G. M. Mathews, Chairman 
of the Club, during the subsequent proceedings. 

Members of the B. 0. C. :— Miss C. M. Acland ; W. B. 
Alexander; E. C. Stuart Baker; Dr. D. A. Bannerman; 
Miss P. Barclay- Smith ; Mrs. R. G. Barnes; Miss M. G. 
Best; Brig.-Gen. R. M. Betham; S. Boorman; A. W. 
Boyd ; G. Brown ; A. Buxton ; Mrs. E. Stafford Charles ; 
Hon. G. L. Charteris; H. P. O. Cleave; A. Ezra; Miss 
J. M. Ferrier ; H. A. Gilbert ; Miss E. M. Godman ; B. G. 
Harrison ; Geoffrey Hill ; Mrs. C. Hodgkin ; P. A. D. 
Hollom ; Dr. K. Jordan ; Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain ; N. B. 
Kinnear; Miss E. P. Leach; Miss C. Longfield; Dr. G. 
Carmichael Low ; Dr. P. R. Lowe ; C. W. Mackworth- 
Praed ; Dr. P. H. Manson-Bahr ; J. G. Mavrogordato ; 
Dr. W. N. May ; Mrs. D. Micholls ; Mrs. C. D. Murton ; 

[April 2, 1937.] a vol, lvh. 



Vol. lrii/| 108 

D. W. Mtjsselwhite ; E. M. Nicholson; Mrs. 0. Peall; 
H. L. Popham, M.A. ; Miss G. M. Rhodes ; Dr. B. B. 
Riviere ; W. L. Sclater ; D. Seth-Smith (Vice-Chairman) ; 
Major M. H. Simonds; Major A. G. L. Sladen (Hon. Treas.) ; 
Col. R. Sparrow ; J. Stares ; Miss D. L. Taylor ; Marquess 
of Tavistock; Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson (Hon. Sec); 
Dr. C. B. Ticehurst ; B. W. Tucker; Miss E. L. Turner; 
Mrs. H. W. Boyd Watt; H. Whistler; W. H. Workman; 
C. de Worms. 

Members of the B. 0. U. : — J. W. Bertram- Jones ; H. G. 
Calkin; Miss B. A. Carter; R. Chislett; E. Cohen; 
A. J. Currie; C. T. Dalgety; N. J. S. Douglas; J. M. M. 
Fisher; C. G. des Forges; H. S. Gladstone; A. G. 
Haworth; Miss A. Hibbert-Ware ; G. C. S. Ingram; 
Mrs. H. M. Rait Kerr; E. H. N. Lowther; E. S. May; 
G. C. Morris; O. G. Pike; Miss F. Pitt; J. K. Stanford; 
I. M. Thomson ; N. Tracy ; Captain L. R. Waud ; C. H. 
Wells. 

Guests : — Mrs. D. A. Bannerman ; Miss D. Brown ; 
Mrs. G. Brown ; Miss C. Calkin ; H. V. Casson ; Mr. and 
Mrs. G. Charles; Mrs. R. Chislett; Mr. and Mrs. C. L. 
Collenette; R. P. Donaldson; Mrs. H. J. S. Douglas; 
H. Drake ; Mr. and Mrs. C. F. Edwin ; J. Gilbert ; Mrs. H. A. 
Gilbert ; A. C. Gladstone ; Miss C. E. Godman ; Mrs. A. G. 
Haworth; A. E. Housman; Mrs. G. C. S. Ingram ; Mr. and 
Mrs. H. King ; Miss M. Lee ; Miss A. Lemon ; Miss V. Lloyd ; 
Miss Lodge ; Mrs. P. R. Lowe ; Hon. Sholto Mackenzie ; 
Mrs. Mackworth-Praed ; Mrs. Manson-Bahr ; Dr. P. 
Marbin; A. McArthur; D. Money; Mrs. J. Morley; 
Miss I. Munro ; D. Murray-Rust ; 0. M. Peall ; W. H. 
Perrett; A. S. Phillips; E. V. Phillips; Mrs. Pike; 
Miss Preston ; Mrs. W. L. Sclater ; Mrs. M. H. Simonds ; 
Mrs. A. G. L. Sladen; Miss G. L. Sladen; Miss B. E. 
Spender ; J. W. Tangye ; A. Taylor ; Mrs. I. M. Thomson ; 
Mrs. A. L. Thomson; A. Tracy; E. M. Tracy; Mrs. B. W. 
Tucker; Mrs. Vawill; B. Weston; Mrs. A. Williams; 
W. A. Williams ; Mrs. H. F. Witherby ; T. F. Witherby, 



109 [Vol. lvii. 

Members of the B. O. C., 60 ; Members of the B. 0. U., 25 ; 
Guests 62; and 15 others. Total 162. 

Professor William Rowan showed a short film, in colour, 
illustrating the " muskegs " of Alberta and their bird-life. 

Mr. A. S. Phillips showed a film which included Blackcock 
challenging and displaying, chicks of the Marsh -Harrier, and 
various species at their nests or breeding places — Nightjar, 
Nuthatch, Greater Spotted Woodpecker, Bearded Tit, Bittern, 
Common Tern, Little Tern, Guillemot, and Puffin. 

Mr. Anthony Buxton showed films, each preceded by a few 
slides, of Pochard flocks in winter, and of old and young 
Water-Rail and Sparrow-Hawks at their nests. 

Mr. Oliver G. Pike showed a film entitled " Bird Sanctuary," 
illustrating the birds breeding on the Fame Islands. The 
species included Kittiwake, Lesser Black-backed Gull, Common 
Tern, Cormorant, Shag, Guillemot, Puffin, Eider-Duck, 
and Oyster- catcher. 

Dr. C. B. Ticehurst forwarded the description of a new 
Phylloscopus : — 

Phylloscopus tibetanus, sp. nov. 

Description. — Upper parts as dark as and of the same colour 
as in Ph. fuligiventer, much darker than in Ph. weigoldi. Under- 
pays different shades of dark grey, in the centre of throat, 
breast, and belly a slight paling to greyish -white. In Ph. fuli- 
giventer the underparts are olive-brown, with distinctly a dull 
yellow wash down the centre of the body ; in Ph. weigoldi 
much more whitish. Under wing and axillaries much as in 
Ph. fuligiventer, but no yellowish tinge. No pale isabelline edges 
to underside of secondaries. Short supercilium greyish -white. 

Distribution. — Only known from the type-locality. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male, Bcjmbi La, Tsari, 
S. Tibet, 13,500 ft., June 9, 1936. No. 3939, Ludlow collection. 

Measurements.— Wing, <£ 59, $ 57 ; tail, ^ 50, $ 46 ; 
bill, $ 13-5, $13 mm. from junction with skull. Second 
primary equal to ninth or tenth. 



Vol. ivii.] no 

Soft parts. — Iris brown ; bill nearly black, yellowish at 
gape ; tarsi and toes very dark brown. 

Remarks. — All three specimens examined are alike, and were 
thought to be breeding. This new Phylloscopus is not a 
hitherto overlooked form ; there is nothing like it in the 
British Museum collection. It is very distinct from Ph. weigoldi, 
but is possibly a race of Ph. fuligiventer ; but until we know 
something about the breeding range of that bird I keep the 
new form as a species. This is perhaps the most remarkable 
discovery made by Mr. Ludlow in Bhutan and S. Tibet, and 
his notes will be awaited with interest. 

Mr. C. M. N. White sent the following note : — 
In recently examining material of Sterna nereis I was 
struck by its close resemblance to S. albifrons, and the characters 
which have been put forward to separate the two species 
seemed rather slight. S. nereis is said to have an all-yellow 
bill and white lores. However, as S. n. exsul has a black 
tip to the bill, and S. n. davisse, has more black before the eye 
than the other two valid races neither character is a very 
strong specific one. Moreover, S. nereis and S. albifrons 
appear to replace each other in Australia. On this evidence 
I should have advocated the view that they are conspeciuc 
but for two facts. There appears to be lack of data about the 
meeting of the two forms somewhere on the coast of southern 
New South Wales or East Victoria ; no doubt information 
upon this point could be obtained easily in Australia. Secondly, 
in S. albifrons sinensis the inner web of the outer primary 
(except for the tip) consists of two more or less equally wide 
bands — one nearer the shaft blackish, the other outer one 
white. In S. nereis the blackish band is reduced to a very 
narrow line along the shaft. Hence for the present it seems 
better to regard S. nereis as a distinct species. 

I find it only possible to recognize one form of S. nereis 
in Australia — the typical. Hence it must stand as Sterna 
nereis nereis (Gould) (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1842, p. 140, 
1843 : Bass Strait), and Sterna nereis horni Mathews (Nov. 
Zool. xviii. p. 209, 1912, Kalgan R., W. Australia) becomes a 
synonym. 



Ill [Vol. lvii. 

I am much indebted to Mr. G. Mack for examining the 
material in the National Museum, Melbourne, which he con- 
siders supports this conclusion. 

A series of eight adults has wings 179-185 mm. 

Sterna nereis davisse Mathews and Iredale (Ibis, 1913, 
p. 245 : New Zealand) is evidently a valid race ; it is darker 
grey above, has more black before the eye, and a longer wing — 
194-200 mm. 

Sterna nereis exsul Mathews (Bds. Austr. ii. p. 385, 1912 : 
New Caledonia) is much smaller, inclined to be paler above, 
and has a distinct black tip to the bill, though this is less 
extensive than in S. albifrons sinensis ; the frontal area of 
white is also more extended backwards. Wing 170-174 in 
four breeding adults. 

I cannot separate Australian examples of Sterna albifrons 
from others from China or the south of New Guinea and 
Celebes, and agree with Hartert that they should be regarded 
as Sterna albifrons sinensis Gm. (Syst. Nat. i. 2, p. 608, 
1789 : China, ex Latham). A series of spring adults has wings 
175-190 mm. 

Dr. David A. Bannerman sent the description of a new 
race of Eremomela scotops from northern Angola, which he 
proposed to name. 

Eremomela scotops angolensis, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Adult male and female. Most nearly allied to 
E. scotops congensis, from which it differs in having the mantle 
and back uniform greyish-brown not washed with green 
throughout as in E. s. congensis ; the crown alone is 
yellowish-green. The underparts are paler yellow on the 
flanks, inclining to cream-colour on the belly, particularly in 
the female. In this respect the new race approaches E. scotops 
mentalis, but that form is greyer above and less tinged with 
yellow below. 

Dr. Stresemann has kindly compared these specimens in 
Berlin with the types of E. congensis and E. mentalis, and 
concurs in the above comparison. 

aS 



Vol. lvii.] 112 

Distribution. — Northern Angola (Malange district). 

Type. — In the British Museum. Adult male, Malange, 
North Angola, Feb. 12, 1909. Collected by W. J. Ansorge. 
British Mus. Keg. no. 1910.5.6.848. 

Measurements and soft parts. — Bill 10-5 ; wing, <^$, 57 ; 
tail, <§ 44, $ 46 ; tarsus 19 mm. Eye yellow-lake, bill 
greenish -black ; legs and feet dark olive -green, toes pale raw 
umber. 

Remarks. — I may take this opportunity of pointing out that 
as the arrangement of the skins in the British Museum collection 
did not seem to me satisfactory I sent what appeared to me 
to be representatives of three races to be compared in Berlin 
with the types of Eremomela congensis Reichw., Eremomela 
mentalis Reichw., and Eremomela citriniceps (Reichw.). 

Professor Stresemann kindly undertook to examine the 
specimens, and wrote to me under date Feb. 19, 1937, that 

(i.) In his opinion the specimen from Malange, Angola, 
represented an undescribed race. 

(ii.) A skin (Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1907.6.26.125), collected by 
Douglas Carruthers on the Upper Congo, 3000 ft., Jan. 7, 1907, 
should be referred to Eremomela scotops mentalis, which latter 
race was wrongly sunk by Sclater in the 'Systema Avium,' 
p. 540, into the synonymy of E. scotops citriniceps, both 
being perfectly recognisable races. 

(iii.) A skin (Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 87.8.12.7), collected by 
Bohndorff at Leopoldville, is identical with the type of Eremo- 
mela scotops congensis. 

(iv.) It was a mistake of Reichenow's to include the locality 
Leopoldville under the range of both E. congensis and E. men- 
talis in his ' Vogel Afrikas,' iii. p. 639. 

The only skin in the Berlin Museum from Leopoldville is 
referable to E. congensis, and E. mentalis does not occur 
there. 

Mr. R. H. W. Pakenham sent the following description 
of a new Scops Owl from Pemba Island : — 

Otus pembaensis, sp. nov. 

Description. — In general appearance very similar to Otus 
rutilus Pucheran, Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1849, p. 29 : Madagascar, 



113 [Vol. lvii. 

and with which it agrees in size ; but more uniform in colour 
both above and below, i. e., practically lacking the streaking 
and barring of 0. rutilus. 

Distribution. — Pemba Island, Eastern Africa. Abundant in 
the north of the island, but appears to be absent or scarce in 
the south. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult, Wete, Pemba 
Island, collected by R. H. W. Pakenham on May 27, 1936. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1937.2.14.1. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 153, culmen 21, tarsus 26, 
tail 75 mm. 

Remarks. — Four adult males and two adult females examined, 
including the type. As in other species and races of the Scops 
Owls rufous phases are present, and two of the males are in 
this state of plumage. Capt. C. H. B. Grant, who has examined 
these specimens, agrees that in view of the great distance 
of Pemba from Madagascar it is better to treat this new bird 
as a species rather than a subspecies of the Madagascar bird. 

Wing -measurements of the six specimens are 148-155 mm., 
and those of ten specimens of Otus rutilus 145-160 mm. 

Probably breeds from August to October (the short rains 
begin in November). Frequents the clove-plantations, favour- 
ing the thickest and darkest parts, and also thickly foliaged trees 
such as mangos, big trees in graveyards, or other tall and 
extensive thickets. Roosts all day in such trees, but has 
also been found sleeping as near as 5 to 6 feet to the ground 
in cardamon or other undergrowth, and in the lower branches 
of trees. Clove -pickers while climbing in the clove -trees 
frequently find this Owl roosting, and can easily pick them up 
in the hand. They begin to leave the roosting places about 
6.10 p.m. (sun-time), i. e., just as dusk is falling, and at once 
begin to utter the monotonous monosyllabic call, " hu," 
sometimes uttered singly, sometimes in a succession of " hu "s 
uttered at half- second intervals — the latter particularly when 
two birds are answering one another and both give utterance 
simultaneously, often one in a low and the other in a high 
key. These calls continue to be heard fairly frequently until 
it becomes quite dark, when they decrease, but they may 
continue to be heard now and again throughout the night. 



Vol. lvii.] 114 

There is a certain amount of evidence of the fact that the low 
and high pitched calls are issued by the male and female 
respectively. Their small size and their partiality for sitting 
among thick foliage make these birds very hard to see. They 
may be located by the call, but this is apparently seldom 
uttered more than a few times from the same spot, and 
a noiseless departure is made. They are quick off the mark, 
and rapid fliers, and are constantly on the move. Frequently 
a bird will not a fly straight from one tree to another, but 
will drop with a dive from the first tree and swoop up into 
the second. I have heard the call uttered on the wing. 
They appear to be stupefied by deep slumber in the daytime, 
and will allow themselves to be knocked down or taken 
in the hand, nor do they make any great efforts to struggle or 
retaliate. During the daytime their vitality appears to be 
at a low ebb, though at night they are very active. In my 
experience the food is entirely of insects. Some of these 
may be caught in flight, but I once saw a bird within half-a- 
dozen paces of me spring from its perch on to the leafy tip of 
a slender bough, which hung down under its weight. There 
it clung for 5 to 10 seconds, with extended wings pressed 
against the foliage to preserve its balance, apparently con- 
suming some creature it had spotted among the leaves. 
Nothing is known yet of its breeding habits, though I believe 
it mates for life. The natives believe that the bird is vivi- 
parous, this being proved by quoting persons who are alleged 
to have found the newly delivered youngster on the grass 
with the mother expiring close by, for she is believed not to 
survive the birth of her young. Belief in its laying eggs in 
a nest was smiled at as a quaint piece of unsophistication 
on my part ! The local native names are " Kihodi " and 
" Kidunda," and this Owl is in some way identified with or 
utilized in the practice of witchcraft. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following change of name : — 

Apalis murina whitei, nom. no v. 

for Apalis murina bensoni Grant and Mackworth-Praed, 
Bull. B. 0. C. lvii. 1937, p. 101: Dedza Mt., Nyasaland, 



115 [Vol. lvii. 

not Apalis bamendss bensoni (=Artisornis metopias bensoni) 
Vincent, Bull. B. 0. C. lv. 1935, p. 174 : Chongoni Mt., 
Nyasaland. 

Named in honour of Mr. C. M. N. White, who has kindly 
drawn our attention to this oversight. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
also sent the following two notes : — 

(1) On the Races of Vinago australis Linn, occurring in Eastern 
Africa, and their Distribution. 
We agree with Grote, Anz. Orn. Ges. Bayern, 2, 1931, 
p. 140, that Vinago calva and its races are conspecific with 
Vinago australis (Linn. Mant. 1771, p. 526 : Madagascar). 
Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. i. 1924, pp. 175, 176, recognizes 
three races in Eastern Africa, and with this we agree, but the 
material since received in the British Museum alters somewhat 
the distribution. 

Vinago australis salvadorii Dubois. 

Vinago calva salvadorii Dubois, P. Z. S. 1897, p. 784 : 
western shores of Lake Tanganyika, Belgian Congo, of which 
Treron calva granviki Grote, J. f. 0. 1924, p. 102 : Ukerewe 
Island, Lake Victoria, is a synonym. 

Nuchal band well denned. Forehead usually bare, showing 
large amount of cere, which is usually coloured coral or orange- 
red. Wing 159-179 mm. (twenty-five specimens). 

Distribution. — Tete Province, Portuguese East Africa, 
northern areas of Northern Rhodesia, northern Nyasaland, 
eastern Belgian Congo, western and southern Tanganyika 
Territory (Kigoma, Kasulu, Mwanza, Iringa), Uganda, 
western Kenya Colony (Suk, Trans-Nzoia). 

Vinago australis uellensis Reichw. 

Vinago calva uellensis Reichenow, J. f. 0. lx. 1912, p. 320 : 
Jakoma, Uelle River, northern Belgian Congo. 

Lacking, or almost lacking, the nuchal collar. Wing 
157-163 mm. (five specimens). 

Distribution. — North-eastern Belgian Congo, south-eastern 
French Equatorial Africa, south-western Sudan to south- 
western Abyssinia (Jimma, Goma, Kaffa). 



Vol. lvii.] 116 

VlNAGO ATJSTRALIS BREVICERA (Hart. & Goods.). 

Treron calva brevicera Hartert & Goodson, Nov. Zool. xxv. 
1918, p. 353 : Moshi, northern Tanganyika Territory. 

Nuchal band well defined, forehead usually feathered, 
showing less amount of cere, which is usually coloured orange - 
yellow. Wing 160-179 mm. (eighteen specimens). 

Distribution. — Northern and Central Tanganyika Territory 
east of Mwanza and Kahama ; and southern Kenya Colony 
east of Lake Victoria. 

Specimens from the Trans-Nzoia country and Amala River, 
Kenya Colony ; Mwanza and Kahama, Tanganyika Territory, 
are somewhat intermediate in cere character between V. a. 
salvadorii and V. a. brevicera, as also are the birds from Ukerewe 
Island, southern Lake Victoria, from where Grote (J. f. 0. 
1924, p. 102) records specimens agreeing with both races. 

Specimens of V. a. salvadorii from the south-eastern Belgian 
Congo, Northern Rhodesia, and northern Nyasaland have 
a certain amount of green coloration in the apical half of the 
tail-feathers ; but the grey predominates, especially at the 
basal half of the feathers, and this precludes this group from 
being confused with the green-tailed forms, V. delalandii and 
V. ivakefieldii. 

(2) On the Races of Centropus monachus Riippell occurring in 
Eastern Africa. 

Claude Grant, Ibis, 1915, p. 421, recognized only two 
races, and considers C. cupreicaudus Reichenow to be a species. 
Sclater, Syst. Av. ^Ethiop. i. 1924, p. 185, recognizes two 
races, and considers C. fischeri Reichenow and C. cupreicaudus 
to be species. Friedmann, Bull. 153, U.S. Nat. Mus. 1930, 
p. 276, recognizes four races, attaching C. fischeri and 
C. cupreicaudus as races. In view of this divergence of 
opinion we have examined the large series in the British 
Museum collection, and agree with Friedmann that G. fischeri 
and C. cupreicaudus are races of C. monachus. 

Through the kindness of Dr. van Someren we have had the 
loan of six specimens from Uganda and Kenya Colony, 
one of which (an adult male) was collected at Kisumu 
in June 1926. This Kisumu specimen is topotypical of 



117 [Vol. lvii 

C. fischeri and agrees perfectly with others in the British 
Museum collection from Uganda to the Gold Coast. Some 
individuals from widely separated localities are very similar 
to each other — for instance, an adult male in the van Someren 
collection from Bugoma, western Uganda (15/7/1919), agrees 
with specimens from Kenya Colony and Abyssinia. 

Despite this similarity in individual specimens we consider 
that two races can be recognized in Eastern Africa, separable 
on the general colour of the mantle. The light horn- colour 
at the base of the lower mandible in some specimens is not 
a diagnostic character, neither is the size of the bill, which is 
variable in all localities. This very careful examination 
leads us to the opinion that only three races can be recognized, 
as follows : — 

Centropus monachus monachus Riipp. 

Centropus monachus Ruppell, N. Wirbelth. Vog. 1837, 
p. 57, pi. xxi. fig. 2 : Kulla, northern Abyssinia. Tail with 
green wash, mantle chestnut. 

Distribution. — Eritrea and Abyssinia to Kenya Colony. 

Centropus monachus fischeri Reichw. 

Centropus fischeri Reichenow, J. f. 0. 1887, p. 57 : Nia- 
katschi, Kavirondo country, Kenya Colony, of which Centropus 
monachus occidentalis Neumann, Bull. B. 0. C. xxi. 1908, 
p. 77 : Ombrokua, Ogowe River, Gabon, and Centropus 
monachus angolensis Neumann, Bull. B. 0. C. xxi. 1908, p. 77 : 
Canhoca, north Angola, are synonyms. 

Mantle mixed with or entirely dark olive -brown. 

Distribution. — From the Gold Coast to northern Angola, 
eastwards to the Belgian Congo, the Sudan, and Uganda. 

Centropus monachus cupreicaudus Reichw. 

Centropus cupreicaudus Reichenow, 0. M. iv. 1896, p. 53 : 
southern Angola. 

Larger. Tail coppery-brown. 

Distribution. — Southern Angola, the Zambesi Valley, and 
northern Bechuan aland to western Nyasaland. 



Vol. Mi.] 118 



NOTICES. 



The next Meeting of the Club will be held on Wednesday, 
April 14, 1937, at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7. 
The Dinner at 7 p.m. 

Members intending to dine must inform the Hon. Secretary, 
Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson, 16 Tregunter Road, S.W. 10, 
on the post-card sent out before the Meeting. 

Members who wish to make any communication at the 
next Meeting of the Club should give notice to the Editor, 
Capt. C. H. B. Grant, 58a Ennismore Gardens, S.W. 7. The 
titles of their contributions will then appear on the Agenda 
published before the Meeting. All MSS. for publication in 
the ' Bulletin ' must be given to the Editor before or at the 
Meeting. 



Agenda. 

Lord Rothschild will send for exhibition paintings of two 
new races of Cassowary. 




BlV^L Root*. 



a 



BULLETIN 






OF THE 



BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB. 



No. CCCCIV. 



The three-hundred and-ninety-ninth Meeting of the Club 
was held at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on 
Wednesday, April 14, 1937. 

Chairman : Mr. G. M. Mathews. 

Members present :— E. C. Stuart Baker; Dr. D. A. 
Bannerman; Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; F. J . F. Barrington • 
Brig.-Gen. R. M. Betham ; P. F. Bctnyard ; Hon. G. L.' 
Charteris ; A. Ezra ; Miss J. M. Ferrier ; Capt. C. H. B 
Grant (Editor) ; B. G. Harrison ; Dr. J. M. Harrison ; 
P. A. D. Hollom ; Dr. E. Hopkinson ; Dr. K. Jordan ; 
Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain ; N. B. Kinnear ; Miss E. P. Leach ;' 
Miss C. Longfield; Dr. G. Carmichael Low; C. W.' 
Mackworth-Praed ; J. H. McNeile ; Lieut.-Col. H. A. F 
Magrath; Dr. P. H. Manson-Bahr ; T. H. Newman; 

C. Oldham; B. B. Osmaston ; Mrs. D. Peall ; H. Ley- 
borne Popham; Dr. Wm. Rowan; W. L. Sclater ; 

D. Seth-Smith (Vice-Chairman) ; Major A. G. L. Sladen 
(Hon. Treas.) ; Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson (Hon. Sec.) ; 

B. W. Tucker ; Miss E. L. Turner ; H. F. Witherby ;' 

C. de Worms. 

Members of the B. O. C, 39. 
[May 4, 1937.] a VOL , LVJJ . 



Vol. lvii.l 120 

Mr. H. Leyborne Popham made some remarks on the 
bird-life of his estuary in Holland. 

Dr. P. H. Manson-Bahr made some remarks on a recent 
trip in the South Atlantic and its bird-life. 

Dr. J. M. Harrison exhibited a series of British Thrushes, 
including specimens from south-west Scotland. 

Lord Rothschild sent for exhibition coloured drawings 
of two new subspecies of Cassowary which he proposed to 
name : — 

(1) Casuarius papuanus shawmayeri, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Casque depressed behind, black ; occiput 
black; back of head and upper half of hind-neck and the 
fore-neck bright blue ; lower half of hind-neck orange ; a large 
patch on cheek and upper parts of side of neck bright mauve ; 
naked sides of neck bright mauve, bordered on hinder side 
with a. band of orange running into orange of hind-neck. 

Colour of soft parts. — Iris brown ; bill black with dark horn 
at tip ; feet and claws light horn colour. Stomach contained 
large fruits. 

Type. — Female adult, Arau district of Kratke Mts., Mandated 
E. New Guinea, 4500 ft., Dec. 30, 1932, no. 454 (coll. F. Shaw 
Mayer). 

Weight of type.— 80% lbs. 

Remarks. — Mr. Shaw Mayer also brought back from the same 
district the skull and bill of a male ; the colour of this male was 
like that of the above-described female, according to the 
collector. 

A third specimen, a younger male, from the Buntibasa 
district of the Kratke Mts., of which Mr. Shaw Mayer could 
preserve only the front half, differs in having the mauve 
cheek-patch much reduced and in bearing an orange spot on 
fore-neck ; the mauve lower sides of the neck are broadly 
and completely bordered with orange. The specimen probably 
represents a colour phase of C. p. shawmayeri. This very 
distinct race seems to go far to prove, by the combination 



121 [Vol. lvii. 

of the colours of the head and neck, that the hecki-Jceyseri- 
papuanus groups of forms are all subspecies of one species. 

(2) Casuarius casuarius grandis, subsp. nov. 

Description. — C. c. grandis has the largest wattles of any 
Cassowary and, unlike its nearest allies, C. c. altijugus Sclater, 
1878 (Wandammen), and C. c. sclateri Salvad., 1878 (S.E. 
New Guinea), both of which have pink wattles, it has the wattles 
and chords brilliant scarlet. The occiput and head sky-blue ; 
cheeks and upper sides of neck dark blue ; lower sides of neck 
violet-purple ; the back of neck has the red much higher up 
than any other Cassowary, the lower half fiery orange -red, 
the upper half crimson- scarlet. The wattles are placed very 
close together and edgeways, not flat on the neck as in its 
allies. 

Distribution. — The specimen is said to have have come from 
the north coast of Dutch New Guinea. 

Type. — Adult. This bird has lived in Mr.Whitley 's menagerie 
for many years and is still in excellent health. 

Measurements of type. — Length of wattles 9 inches. 

Remarks. — This subspecies belongs to that section of C. casu- 
arius which is confined to the mainland of New Guinea, 
and has the two chords of the fore-neck running from the 
wattles to the under-mandible pink in the adult, whereas in 
C. casuarius L., 1758, from Ceram, the Australian Cassowary, 
and the forms from the Aru Islands these chords remain more 
or less blue like the fore-neck. 

Dr. G. Carmichael Low showed a series of Redshank and 
Ringed Plover skins from Orkney, the specimens having 
been sent him by Mr. T. C. Towers of Stromness. He drew 
attention to the fact that he had already shown a series of 
similar skins to try to determine which races of these two 
species inhabited these islands in late winter (Bull. B. O. C. liii. 
1933, p. 163 ; id. liv. 1934, p. 126). 

As regards the Redshanks, two of the birds, he considered, 
represented the Icelandic race Tringa totanus robusta, while 
the others were ordinary Tringa t. totanus. The two Icelandic 
birds were identified alive in the field as being of unusual size, 

42 



Vol. lvii.] 



122 



and this was borne out later by their weights and measurements. 
The wing in one of these measured 168 mm., in the other 
163 mm., with weights of 160 and 164 grammes respectively. 
The subjoined table shows the details. 



Orkney Redshanks. 
1 & 2, Tringa totanus robusta ; 3-10, Tringa totanus totanus. 



No. 

I 


Locality. 


1 

Date. 


i 


6 
< 


i 


I 


S 05 
O *H 


CO 

H 


i 

.a 


1.. 


Stromness, 
Orkney. 


13. ii 


. 1937 


a 


Adult 


168 


64 


43 


50 


160 


2.. 


» 


20. ii 


. 1937 


? 


» 


163 


65 


40 


48 


164 


3.. 




13. ii 


. 1937 


<J 


„ 


151 


58 


39 


44 


128 


4.. 






,, 


<* 




, 


153 


63 


43 


50 


137 


5.. 






,, 


o* 




, 


148 


56 


42 


45 


115 


6.. 






, 


<$ 




, 


163 


66 


43 


46 


142 


7.. 






, 


(J 




> 


151 


60 


40 


44 


112 


8.. 






, 


$ 




, 


153 


62 


41 


45 


121 


9.. 






, 


? 




, 


159 


62 


43 


46 


132 


10.. 






» 


? 




' 


163 


66 


43 


44 


142 



Dr. Low said the question of what race the other specimens 
belonged to could not be answered, as the newly described 
British race Tringa t. britannica did not differ in any way from 
Tringa t. totanus in winter plumage or in size. Time and 
space would not permit of a discussion here on the validity 
of the subspecies, but it seemed rather anomalous to make 
a new race on such slender evidence as a slight difference in 
summer breeding plumage for birds exactly the same in 
measurements and plumage in winter, and led one into the 
absurd position that one could not say that Tringa t. totanus 
had ever appeared in the British Isles, nor to what race all 
the winter Redshanks in collections belonged. Surely winter 
characteristics must be taken into account as well as summer 
in forming new subspecies. He hoped to return to this 
point later, but for the moment would call his Orkney birds 



123 



[Vol. lvii. 



Tringa t. totanus, as they were much more likely to he wintering 
birds from the north than locally bred birds staying there 
for the winter. Again, there was no evidence, so far as he 
knew, as to what the plumage of the Redshank breeding 
in the Orkneys was like. 

The Ringed Plover, as the table showed, were all Charadrius 
h. hiaticula and not C. h. tundrse, the northern race. 

Charadrius h. hiaticula. 



No. 


Locality. 


1 
Date. 

PS 

1 CD 

1 m 


© 

too 

< 


I 
£ 


"eg 
H 


i & 

F3 eg 

PQ cS 


3 


1 Stromness. 

2 

3 

4 

5 


20. ii. 1937 $ 

i o* 
26. ii. 1937 I $ 

! $ 
j $ 


Adult. 

» 


137 
135 
138 
136 
135 


60 
59 
64 
64 
65 


15 
15 
15 
14 
15 


25 
25 
24 
25 

24 



Mr. Gregory M. Mathews sent the following description 
of a new race of Shearwater : — 

Puffinus diomedea disputans, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Differs from P. diomedea (Scopoli) (P. Jcuhlii 
olim) in having the base of the primaries with much less white, 
and in having a longer wing and tail. 

Distribution. — Seas around Kerguelen Island to South 
Africa. 

Type. — An unsexed and undated adult in the British Museum, 
collected on Kerguelen Island and presented by the Admiralty. 
Brit. Mus. Reg. no.-ip4.721. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 350 ; culmen 51 ; tarsus 52 ; 
middle toe with claw 70 ; tail 140 mm. P. diomedea from 
Malaga measures : wing 341 ; tail 128 mm. 

Mr. Mathews also sent the following two notes : — 
(1) In the 'Analyst,' vol. iii. Jan. 1836, p. 211, S. D. W[ood] 
proposed the genus Puffinus Willoughby (not Brisson) on the 
score of " scientific accuracy " to replace F rater cula Brisson, 



Vol. lvii.] 124 

as used by Selby. He also proposed the name flavirostris 
for the Common Puffin. 

A synonym of the Common Puffin is : — 

1836. Puffinus flavirostris S. D. W[ood], 'Analyst,' vol. hi. 
p. 211. (For this same bird C. T. Wood in the ' Ornithological 
Guide,' 1836 (June ?) proposed the name Puffinus vulgaris.) 

In the Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. xiii. May 1, 1844, p. 365, 
Gould described Procellaria flavirostris, and this bird is now 
placed by many workers in the genus Puffinus. Therefore 
Gould's name becomes a homonym. 

(2) The following synonym must be added to the Storm- 
Petrel :— 

Procellaria hirundo Forster, Synop. Cat. Dec. 1817, p. 33 : 
new name for P. pelagica L. 

The Marquess Hachistjka sent the fob 1 owing note on 
Afropavo congensis Chapin : — 

It may be interesting to the readers of the ' Bulletin ' 
to know that a number of rare and striking birds have been 
erroneously identified either as members of an already well- 
known species or as hybrids. Afropavo congensis is a case of 
the former, Pseudotadorna cristata is an example of the latter, 
while a number of wild hybrids have been described as distinct 
species. Such examples are found among the Birds of Paradise. 
I have so far seen only the photograph of Afropavo congensis, 
and to me it has remarkable resemblances to a rare hybrid 
of the Guinea-fowl and Peafowl recorded by Baur of Berlin and 
Ghigi of Bologna (Hachisuka, ' Variations among Birds,' 
pi. xvii. 1928). This hybrid has the general shape of the 
female Afropavo. However, the important difference is 
that the hybrid lacks the crest and the spur. It is evident 
that the secondary sexual and the well-developed characteris- 
tics of the true species disappear in the hybrid, and this 
particular bird has neither the crest and train of the Peacock 
nor the helmet of the Guinea-fowl. Such a bird exhibits 
the primitive ancestral type. Therefore, from this point of 
view, I am able to support Dr. Chapin's view that his Congo 
Peacock is in the ancestral stage of the development of the 
Asiatic Peacock. 



125 [Vol. lvii. 

Mr. J. D. Macdonald and Major F. 0. Cave sent the 
following note on a new record from the Anglo -Egyptian 
Sudan : — 

The Levant Sparrow-Hawk (Accipiter brevipes). 

Astur brevipes Severzow, Bull. Soc. Imp. des Nat. Mosc. 
xxiii. (pt. 2), 1850, p. 234. 

Type-locality. — Veronezh, Southern Russia. 

Juv. female, in worn plumage. Collected by Major F. 0. 
Cave on Dec. 25, 1936, at Towath, Boma Plateau, S.E. 
Sudan ; wing 231 mm., now in the British Museum (Natural 
History). 

Remarks. — This Sparrow-Hawk had not been recorded 
south of the latitude of the Sinai Peninsula until Philby 
obtained an adult male near Mecca, in Arabia, on January 16, 
1936 (see Bates, Bull. B. 0. C. vol. lvi. 1936, p. 131). The 
present specimen, a lone bird, was found sitting in a small 
tree on the edge of a rocky escarpment on the Boma Plateau. 

Mr. R. E. Moreau sent the following note on Phyllastrephus 
fischeri Reichw. and related forms : — 

I have had available in the British Museum a well- distributed 
series of over ninety specimens. I am indebted to the Director 
of the Berlin Museum for his courtesy in sending the types 
of P. fischeri Reichw. and P. placidus munzneri Reichw., 
and to the Director of the Budapest Museum for the type of 
P. dowashanus Madz. 

I follow Sclater (Syst. Av. iEth.) in regarding P. placidus 
Shelley as a subspecies of P. fischeri Reichw., of which I note 
that P. sokokensis van Som. has been admitted to be a synonym 
(Nov. Zool. xxxviii. 1932, p. 343). Birds from Kilimanjaro 
and from eastern Kenya Colony have the brownest heads in 
contrast to the olive of their backs, and also they have under- 
parts of a creamy-white colour. In specimens from Nyasaland 
the head does not contrast so strongly with the back, but there 
is everywhere considerable individual variation, and birds 
can be matched from localities as far apart as Usambara 
and south Nyasaland. Moreover, there is a complete inter- 
gradation of characters from north and south. Specimens 



Vol. lvii.] 126 

from Mbulu District are rather brighter below than typical 
birds. 

I agree with van Someren (Nov. Zool. xxviii. 1932, p. 343) 
that P. keniensis Mearns cannot stand. Van Someren has, 
in the J. E. A. & Uganda N. H. Soc. xxxvii. 1930, p. 197, 
described P. /. marsabit. The two Marsabit specimens before 
me do not support this separation. 

Birds from Usambara have been distinguished by Grote 
(Orn. Mon. xxvii. 1919, p. 63), under the name P. /. cognatus, 
as having darker sides to their bodies than P. placidus. In 
the adequate series now available in London no difference in 
this respect is perceptible. 

It may be noted that P. sucosus was originally described 
(Journ. f. Orn. 1903, p. 544) as a race of P. cabanisi, which 
Sclater (Syst. Av. Mth.) places as a synonym of P. icterina. 
However, both Chapin (in litt.) and Bannerman (' Birds of 
Tropical West Africa,' iv.) regard P. cabanisi and P. icterina 
as separate species because, although their plumage is so similar, 
there is a great difference in the size of the two forms, and their 
ranges overlap. I agree with these conclusions. I consider 
further that P. sucosus is not closely related to P. cabanisi ; 
it has a much smaller bill and altogether less yellow on the 
underparts. 

Another form, P. hypochloris Jackson, has been treated as 
a subspecies of P. cabanisi by van Someren (Nov. Zool. xxix. 
1922, p. 185), but he has since followed the Syst. Av. Mth. in 
regarding it as a species (Nov. Zool. xxxviii. 1932, p. 343). 
This view is undoubtedly the correct one. Of P. sylvicultor 
(Neave) a good series is available. 

I therefore consider the P. fischeri group to consist of the 
following forms : — 

Phyllastrephus fischeri fischeri Reichenow, Orn. 
Centralb. 1879, p. 139 : Muniumi, near mouth of Juba 
River, southern Italian Somaliland ; of which P. sokolcensis 
van Someren, Bull. B. 0. C. xliv. 1923, p. 7 : Sokoke Forest, 
Malindi, Kenya Colony, is a synonym. Wing, $, 78-89 ; 
$, 76-80 mm. Distribution. — Juba River to the Pangani. 
A lowland forest bird, apparently confined to the coastal belt 
below 1000 feet. 



127 [Vol. lvii. 

Phyllastrephus fischeri placid us (Shelley), P. Z. S. 
1889, p. 363 : Kilimanjaro; of which P.f. keniensis Mearns, 
Smiths. Misc. Coll. Ixi. (25) 1914, p. 2 : Mt. Kenya ; 
P. f. marsabit van Someren, J. E. A. & Uganda N. H. Soc. 
xxxvii. 1930, p. 197 : Mt. Marsabit ; and P. f. cognatus Grote, 
Orn. Monatsb. xxvii. 1919, p. 63 : Usambara, northern 
Tanganyika Territory, are synonyms. Wing, <J, 75-90 ; 
$, 72-89 mm. Distribution. — Kenya Colony east of the 
Rift Valley, including Marsabit, south through Kilimanjaro, 
Usambara, Nguru, Uluguru, to south Nyasaland (Zomba, 
Cholo, Chiradzulu) and Portuguese East Africa (Mt. Namuli). 
A hill forest bird from between 1200 and 7750 feet, 

Phyllastrephus fischeri stjcosus (Reichw.). Journ. 
Orn. 1903, p. 544 : Bukoba, Tanganyika Territory ; of which 
P. dowashanus Madz., Arch. Zool. i. 1910, p. 176 : Ngare 
Dowash (= Upper Amala River), S.W. Kenya Colony, is 
a synonym. Wing, <J, 77-85 ; $, 70-76 mm. Distribution. — 
Southern Sudan, Uganda, Kenya Colony west of the Rift, 
south across the Tanganyika border to Loliondo. Hill forest, 
5000- 10,000 feet. 

Phyllastrephus fischeri sylvicultor (Neave), Ann. & 
Mag. Nat. Hist. viii. 1909, p. 130 : Dikulwe River (=Likulwe 
River), Haut-Luapula, Belgian Congo. Wing, <$, 89-97; 
$, 82-87 mm. Distribution. — The Katanga district of the 
Belgian Congo and the northern end of Northern Rhodesia, 
east to the Muchinga escarpment. 

Phyllastrephus munzneri Reichw. 

Phyllastrephus placidus munzneri Reichenow, Orn. Monatsb. 
xxix. 1916, p. 181 : Sanyi, Mahenge District, southern 
Tanganyika Territory. 

A large bird which I consider should be placed as a species. 
A male specimen collected by me in the Middle Sigi Valley 
(600 ft.), Usambara, northern Tanganyika Territory (B.M. Reg. 
no. 1933.6.1.35), agrees very closely with the type. Wing, <£, 
92-95 mm. Distribution. — Mahenge District and East Usam- 
bara, Tanganyika Territory. It is probably a bird of lowland 



Vol. lvii.] 128 

evergreen forest which should be looked for at the seaward 
foot of the Uluguru Mts. In Usambara it has been found 
only in the lowland evergreen forest of the eastern foothills ; 
with P. /. fischeri along the coast less than 30 miles away 
to the east ; and P. f. placidus within 6 miles to the west ; 
but P. miinzneri is completely separated from the latter by 
a belt of over 1000 ft., where I have been unable to find any 
of these forms. 

I have to thank Capt. C. H. B. Grant for examining for me 
the type of P. p. miinzneri Reichw. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following three notes : — 

(1) On Melittophagus sharpei Hartert. 

In the Bull. B. 0. C. x. 1899, p. xxvii, Hartert gave this 
name as a substitute one for M. cyanostictus as used by Sharpe 
in the Cat. Bds. B. M. xvii. 1892, p. 48, as he considered 
Cabanis's M. cyanostictus had been described from Natal. 
In the Nov. Zool. vii. 1900, p. 35, he attaches his M . sharpei 
to British Somaliland and designates a type (see also Nov. 
Zool. xxxi. 1924, p. 112), having meanwhile discovered that 
Cabanis's type of M. cyanostictus came from Mombasa, Kenya 
Colony, and not from Natal. This reshuffle of a name and 
designating a type was of course incorrect and cannot be 
upheld. In the Bull. B. O. C. Hartert clearly amends 
(substitutes) M. sharpei for M. cyanostictus, which he erroneously 
thought came from Natal, and when he found that his assump- 
tion was incorrect he should have placed his M. sharpei as a 
synonym of M. cyanostictus. 

No type or new type -locality can be designated for a sub- 
stitute name, and in this case the type-locality of M . sharpei 
is clearly Mombasa. Friedmann, Bull. 153, U.S. Nat. Mus. 
1930, p. 362, has been misled in believing that Hartert named 
a new race from British Somaliland, when in actual fact 
he renamed Cabanis's M . cyanostictus (see also Claude Grant, 
Ibis, 1915, p. 295). 

We are unable to see any constant differences between 
specimens from British Somaliland and Abyssinia to north- 



129 [Vol. lvii. 

eastern Tanganyika Territory, and, therefore, agree with 
Sclater, Syst. Av. ^thiop. i. 1924, p. 222, as to the distribution 
of M. pusillus cyanostictus. 

(2) On the Type-locality of Melittophagus bullockoides (Smith). 
All authors give South Africa only. Smith, S. Afr. Quart. 

Journ. 2nd ser. 1834, p. 320, gives South Africa, and in 
his Illus. Zool. S. Afr. pi. ix. 1838, he states that " it was not 
until the expedition attained the 25° of S. lat. that this bird 
was discovered, though north of that it appears not un- 
common." The expedition referred to is that from Graaf 
Rienet to Kuruman and the Limpopo, the most northerly 
point reached being 23° 26' S. lat. In following out his 
route on a modern map we find that he crossed the 25° S. lat. 
either just within or just without the present boundary of 
the western Transvaal. We therefore consider that Marico 
District, western Transvaal, South Africa, may be fixed as 
the exact type-locality of Melittophagus bullockoides (A. Smith). 

(3) On the Relationship of Melittophagus variegatus and 

Melittophagus lafresna.yii . 

It has generally been accepted that M. variegatus and 
M. lafresnayii are two distinct species, both having one race 
each. 

On placing these four forms together we are at once struck 
by the similarity of three of them and the dissimilarity of one. 
In M. variegatus, M. lafresnayii, and M . v. bangweoloensis 
we find a similar blue band on the lower neck and a similar 
tone of colour on the belly, whereas M . oreobates has a deep 
blue-black band on the lower neck and a much darker cinnamon 
tone on the belly. As both M. variegatus and M . oreobates 
occur in Uganda, they cannot be races of each other, but it does 
appear that of the two M. variegatus is much more nearly 
allied to M . lafresnayii than to M. oreobates. We, therefore, 
propose the following re -arrangement : — 

Melittophagus variegatus variegatus (Vieill.). 
Merops variegatus Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. xiv. 1817, 
p. 25 : Malimbe, Portuguese Congo. 
No blue on forehead. 



Vol. Mi.] 130 

Distribution. — Gabon, and Angola to Cameroons, east to 
N.E. Belgian Congo and Uganda. 

Melittophagus variegatus lafresnayii (Guer.). 
Merops lafresnayii Guerin, Rev. Zool. 1843, p. 322 : Abyssinia. 
Forehead blue. 
Distribution. — Eritrea and Abyssinia. 

Melittophagus variegatus bangweoloensis C. Grant. 

Melittophagus variegatus bangweoloensis Claude Grant, 
Bull. B. O. C. xxxv. 1915, p. 55 : Luena District, north- 
eastern Rhodesia. 

Paler below and blue neck-band darker and deeper in 
tone. 

Distribution. — Lake Bangweolo District and south-eastern 
Belgian Congo. 

Melittophagus oreobates Sharpe. 

Melittophagus oreobates Sharpe, Ibis, 1892, p. 320 : Save, 
northern side of Mt. Elgon, Uganda. 

Neck-band deep blue-black, chest to belly rich cinnamon. 

Distribution. — Southern Sudan and Uganda, through 
southern Kenya Colony, to north-eastern Tanganyika 
Territory. 



131 [Vol. Mi. 

NOTICES. 

The next Meeting of the Club will be held on Wednesday, 
May 5, 1937, at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7. 
The Dinner at 7 p.m. 

Members intending to dine must inform the Hon. Secretary, 
Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson, 16 Tregunter Road, S.W. 10, 
on the post-card sent out before the Meeting. 

Members who wish to make any communication at the 
next Meeting of the Club should give notice to the Editor, 
Capt. C. H. B. Grant, 58a Ennismore Gardens, S.W. 7. The 
titles of their contributions will then appear on the Agenda 
published before the Meeting. All MSS. for publication in 
the ' Bulletin ' must be given to the Editor before or at the 
Meeting. 



Agenda. 

Mr. A. P. Marshall will make remarks on New Guinea Birds. 
Mr. P. F. Bunyard will exhibit an interesting series of 
Blackbirds' eggs. 



I R 



cv-«t rtoo-v 



- 



BULLETIN 

OF THE 



BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB. 



No. CCCCV. 



The four-hundredth meeting of the Club was held at the 
Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, 
May 5, 1937. 

Chairman : Mr. G. M. Mathews. 

Members present :— Miss C. M. Acland ; W. B. Alexander ; 
Dr. D. A. Bannerman ; Miss P. Barclay-Smith ; F. J. F. 
Barrington ; P. F. Bunyard ; J. Fisher ; Miss E. M. 
Godman ; Col. A. E. Hamerton ; Dr. J. M. Harrison ; 
Dr. E. Hopkinson ; Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain ; N. B. 
Kinnear ; Miss E. P. Leach ; Dr. P. R. Lowe ; C. W. 
Mackworth-Praed ; Mrs. D. Peall ; Dr. Wm. Rowan ; 
W. L. Sclater ; D. Seth-Smith {V ice-Chairman) ; Major A. 
G. L. Sladen (Hon. Treas.) ; The Marquess of Tavistock ; 
Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson (Hon. Sec.) ; B. W. Tucker ; 
Mrs. H. W. Boyd Watt ; C. M. N. White ; H. F. Witherby ; 
C. de Worms. 

Guest of the Club : — A. J. Marshall. 

Guests :— Sir Geoffrey Archer ; Miss L. Lodge ; S. O. 
Olson ; Miss M. S. van Oostveen ; A. G. D. Russell. 

Members, 29 ; Guest of the Club, 1 ; Guests, 5. 
[May 26, 1937.] a vol. lvii. 



Vol. lvii.] 134 

Mr. A. J. Marshall made the following remarks on a recent 
expedition to New Guinea which was made after the Oxford 
University Expedition to the New Hebrides concluded in 
1934 :— 

Eleven months were spent in this great tropic island. 
The ornithology of the country is closely interwoven with 
native legends and superstition. The native dress and 
extraordinary head-dress used by certain savage stone-age 
tribes of the hinterland are composed almost entirely of the 
plumes of various indigenous birds. 

New Guinea and Australia are geologically allied, and the 
zoology of the two countries very similar. As in Australia, 
Parrots, Cuckoos, Kingfishers, and Pigeons are extremely 
common. Groups such as the Ptilinorhynchidse and the Birds 
of Paradise are confined to the Australasian region and are 
found on both sides of the Torres Straits. 

The Cassowary is one of the most important of all animals — 
next to the pig — in the lives of the savage Melanesian or 
Papuan. Flesh for meat, stiff bristles for head-dress, wing- 
spines for nasal ornaments, thigh bone for the wicked yellow 
bone stabbing-daggers. 

The smuggling of Birds of Paradise plumes (until the 
Australian government declared the traffic illegal) across 
the border into Dutch New Guinea is now extinct. The 
Chinese buyers of Hollandia in Netherlands New Guinea 
spoke regretfully of the good old days of the plume trade 
when single skins were often worth as much as ten pounds, 
and rarely below five pounds, and also told of the difficulties 
of the jungle and travel through unexplored territory. 
They described their efforts to observe the peerless display 
of the Birds of Paradise. In my opinion the most satisfactory 
place in the world to observe the display of New Guinea Birds 
of Paradise is in the Zoological Gardens at Regent's Park, 
London ! 

Mr. P. F. Bun yard exhibited a long series of Blackbird's 
(Turdus m. merula) eggs, mostly from the Kentish orchards, 
including erythristic and cyanic varieties, and made the follow- 
ing remarks : — 

I exhibit the whole series so that members may the better 



135 [Vol. lvii. 

to able to realize how enormously the eggs of the Blackbird 
vary, not only in general characteristics but also in size and 
shape. They were nearly all taken in the Kentish orchards, 
where they are very destructive to the crops ; consequently 
annual Blackbird drives are organized in the autumn, when 
hundreds are killed. 

No. 1. A clutch of six, showing true erythrism, from the 
collection of the late Mr. Heatley Noble, M.B.O.U. These 
were taken on April 4, 1914, at Park Place, Berks. The 
ground-colour is pure white ; the markings are finely stippled 
pale bright reddish -brown, and evenly distributed, which gives 
the whole egg a pinkish appearance. An egg from a similar 
clutch is figured in the British Museum ' Catalogue of Birds' 
Eggs,' vol. iv. pi. viii. fig. 1 ; and also by Dresser, ' Eggs of 
the Birds of Europe,' pi. ii. fig. 8. These are from Ireland. 
Similar clutches found in Waterford are mentioned by Ussher 
in ' Birds of Ireland,' p. 7. According to published data 
erythrism in the eggs of the Blackbird must be considered of 
fairly rare occurrence, and a clutch of six apparently 
unique. 

The weights and measurements of this clutch are particu- 
larly interesting and confirm a discovery I made some years 
ago while weighing a long series of the erythristic eggs of the 
Blackcap (Sylvia a. atricapilla) — i. e., that erythristic varieties 
are not only larger but also heavier than typical eggs. 

Average weight, six eggs : 0-400 g. 

Measurements : 30-5x21-3 mm. 

Rey (48 eggs, probably all continental), 0-384 g., 28-6 x 
21 mm. 

Nos. 2 & 3. Two clutches of four each, from Kent. These 
are exceptionally beautiful eggs. A third clutch by the same 
bird during the same season was also secured, which are 
exactly similar. A clear case in support of the persistent 
urge for the reproduction of the species. The fourth clutch 
was, no doubt, successfully hatched. Seven of these eggs 
have the large ends heavily capped with very rich reddish- 
brown pigment ; the remaining portion is almost unmarked. 
One egg has a broad band near the small end. An almost 
exactly similar variety is figured in the British Museum 
' Catalogue,' pi. viii. fig. 2. 



Vol. lvii.] 136 

No. 4. This is a remarkable clutch from the Noble collection, 
and was taken in Berks on April 9, 1897. It is the only clutch 
I have ever seen showing vein markings — i. e., emberiza- 
like scrolls of pale reddish-brown on pale bluish ground. 

No. 5. A clutch of six from Northants, taken by the late 
Mr. C. E. Weight, is of outstanding interest. The ground- 
colour of pale greenish-blue is almost obscured by finely stippled 
markings of rich reddish -brown, which coalesce and form caps 
at the extreme large ends. 

Cyanic clutches without any sign of markings, and others 
in the transition stage, were included in the series. 

In conclusion, Mr. Bunyard said that he had examined large 
numbers of Blackbirds' eggs, and had found that those from 
Kent were not only richer in the ground-colour but also in the 
markings, due, probably, to the fact that large quantities of 
fruit are eaten, which keeps the birds in a strong healthy 
condition, which would obviously stimulate the reproductive 
organs and enrich the blood pigments and bile secretions. 

A clutch of five British Song Thrush (Turdus ericetorum 
ericetorum) showing true erythrism were also exhibited for com- 
parison. Except in the arrangement and distribution of 
the markings they do not differ from the erythristic eggs of 
the Blackbird. 

Mr. C. M. N. White sent the following description of a new 
race of Pitta : — 

Pitta novaeguineae goodfellowi, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Differs from typical P. n. novseguinex in 
being smaller and averaging darker green above. The sexes 
do not differ materially in size. 

Distribution. — Appears to occur only in the Aru Islands. 

Type. — <J, Silbattabatta, Aru Islands, Feb. 1904. Collected 
by W. Goodfellow. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1907.12.11.63. 

Measurements of type. — Wing 97 ; bill from skull 26 mm. 

Remarks. — Sixteen birds examined from New Guinea 
(Mimika R., Dorey, Aleya, Mullen's Harbour) have wings 
101-110, once 98 mm. This is confirmed by measurements 
recently published by Mayr (Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 



137 [Vol. lvii. 

vol. lxxiii. Art. 1, p. 88, 1937). He finds that twelve birds 
from Wuroi, Kubuna, etc. have wings 100-106 mm. Wing 
of twelve examples from the Aru Islands 93-101, once 104 mm. 
Also four examples from Mysol, Salwatti, and Gagi, with wings 
105-108 mm., evidently belong to the typical race. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following five notes : — 

(1) On the Type-locality of Zosterops toroensis Reichenow, 
J.f. O. 1904, p. 133 : (Toro) Kitamba, in Uvamba:— 

The name of this bird points to the type having been collected 
in Toro, Uganda, but this is not so, and the type-locality 
given by Reichenow is Toro : Kitamba, in Uvamba (Emin). 

This bird was collected by Emin Pasha, and reference to 
the map in Stuhlmann, Mit Emin Pascha ins Herz von Afrika, 
1894, shows that he travelled on the west side of Ruwenzori, 
and was not on the Uganda side in Toro at all. Neither 
Kitamba or Uvamba are given in this map, but it is un- 
doubtedly the same place as Buamba of the modern maps. 
The correct type-locality of Zosterops toroensis Reichenow 
is therefore : Kitamba, Buamba, western slopes of Ruwenzori 
Mts., eastern Belgian Congo. 

(2) On the Status of Bycanistes cristatus brevis Friedmann, 

Proc. N. /Engl. Club. ii. 1929, p. 32 : Mt. Lutindi, 
Usambara Mts., northern Tanganyika Territory : — 
Friedmann gives for Abyssinian birds the following wing- 
measurement : 

Males, 380-385 mm. 
Females, 345-353 mm. 

And for birds from Kenya Colony southwards : 

Males, 345-377 mm. 
Females, 321-333 mm. 

Bangs and Loveridge, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 1933, p. 176, 
support this race, giving average of seven males as 350 mm. 
and five females as 337-5 mm. Their specimens are from 
central and south-western Tanganyika Territory. 



C/C 



Vol. lvii.] 138 

We have measured the wings of the series in the British 
Museum collection, as follows : — 
Abyssinia : 

Males, 365-383 mm. (six specimens). 

Females, 338-345 mm. (three specimens). 
Kenya colony southwards : 

Males, 352-392 (seventeen specimens). 

Females, 318-356 (nine specimens). 

On this showing we are unable to recognize a northern 
and a southern race, but one species only, ranging from Abys- 
sinia to Southern Rhodesia. 

(3) On the Type-locality of Loplioceros deckeni Cabanis, in 

V. d. Decken, Reisen, hi. pt. 1, 1869, p. 37, pi. vi. : — 

In the description it is stated that the original label of the 
type was lost and therefore Cabanis gave the general type- 
locality of Ost-Afrika. In volume ii. of the Reisen, Map viii. 
gives clearly the travels of Von der Decken between 1860 and 
1865. These include two trips from Wanga and Mombasa 
to the Wachagga country. 

As Von der Decken's Hornbill is found in this area, we 
suggest that the type-locality of Lophoceros deckeni Cab. 
be fixed as Seyidie Province, Kenya Colony. 

(4) On the Type -locality of Strix woodfordii woodfordii 

(A. Smith), S. Afr. Quart. Journ. 2nd ser. 1834, 
p. 312 :— 

In the S. Afr. Quart. Journ. Smith gives only South Africa, 
and does not mention this bird in his ' Illustrations to Zoology,' 
1849. All authors have quoted South Africa only. Sclater, 
Fauna S. A. Bds. hi. 1903, p. 246, gives Knysna and other 
localities. As Knysna appears to be its most western limit 
in the Cape Province, we consider the type-locality of Strix 
woodfordii woodfordii (Smith) can be fixed as : Knysna, 
Cape Province, South Africa. 

(5) On the Type-locality of Glaucidium capense caslaneum 

Reichenow, Orn. Monatsb. i. 1893, p. 62 :— 

In the Systema Av. iEthiop. i. 1924, p. 244, the type-locality 
Andundi is given as probably near Bukoba, Tanganyika Terri- 



139 [Vol. lvii. 

tory. Reichenow states that the type was collected by Emin 
Pasha and Stuhlmann, and reference to Stuhlmann's Mit 
Emin Pascha ins Herz von Afrika (Deutsch Ost. Afrika, i.) 
1893, p. 629, and Map, shows that Andundi is in the Warn- 
buba country, i. e., eastern Ituri District, north-eastern 
Belgian Congo. 



NOTICES. 

The next Meeting of the Club will be held on Wednesday, 
June 9, 1937, at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7. 
The Dinner at 7 p.m. 

Members intending to dine must inform the Hon. Secretary, 
Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson, 16 Tregunter Road, S.W. 10, 
on the post-card sent out before the Meeting. 

Members who wish to make any communication at the 
next Meeting of the Club should give notice to the Editor, 
Capt. C. H. B. Grant, 58a Ennismore Gardens, S.W. 7. The 
titles of their contributions will then appear on the Agenda 
published before the Meeting. All MSS. for publication in 
the ' Bulletin ' must be given to the Editor before or at the 
Meeting. 



Agenda. 

Mr. N. B. Kinnear will exhibit some birds from Southern 
Arabia. 












! i 



pyBOHASt. 



■fci^B. 



b 0">w, 



\3# 



BULLETIN 



OF THE 



BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' CLUB, 




No. CCCCVI. 

The four-hundred-and-first Meeting of the Club was held 
at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7, on Wednesday, 
June 9, 1937. 

Chairman : Mr. G. M. Mathews. 

Members present : — E. C. Stuart Baker ; Dr. D. A. 
Bannerman ; F. J. F. Barrington ; Brig.-Gen. R. M. 
Betham ; The Hon. G. L. Charteris ; J. Cunningham ; 
Miss J. M. Ferrier ; Miss E. M. Godman ; Capt. C. H. B. 
Grant (Editor) ; P. A. D. Hollom ; Dr. E. Hopkinson ; 
N. B. Kinnear ; Miss E. Leach ; Miss C. E. Longfield ; 
Dr. G. Carmichael Low ; J. G. Mavrogordato ; T. H. 
Newman ; B. B. Osmaston ; W. L. Sclater ; D. Seth- 
Smith ; The Marquess of Tavistock ; B. W. Tucker ; 
C. be Worms. 

Guests : — Arnold Carmichael ; Miss E. C. Godman. 

Members of the B. 0. C, 24. Guests, 2. 

Mr. N. B. Kinnear exhibited, on behalf of the Marquess 
Hachisuka, a restoration of the Solitaire, Ornithaptera 
solitaria. 

[June 30, 1937.] c? vol. lvh. 



Vol. lvii.] 142 

Messrs. Bates and Kinnear made the following remarks, 
and described a new race of Sandgrouse : — ■ 

Through the kindness of Mr. W. H. Ingrams, the British 
Museum was able to send a native collector to work under him 
in the Hadhramaut for five months. The collection consists 
of 266 specimens belonging to 38 species, one of which, 
a close-barred Sandgrouse, appears to be new. 

Pterocles lichtensteinii ingramsi, subsp. nov. 

Male. — Differs from P. I. lichtensteinii on the upper side in 
the much lighter colour, owing to the reduction in width 
of the dark transverse bars to less than half that of the pale 
sandy portion of the feather. In typical birds the reverse is 
the case, which has the effect of making the whole bird appear 
darker. On the underside the bars are also reduced, but not 
to such an extent. The female is also much paler in colour 
from the same cause. 

Distribution. — Only known from the Hadhramaut, east of 
Wadi Do'an (N.W. of Mokalla). 

Type. — In the British Museum. Male adult, end of 
January 1937, Wadi Izhab, Hadhramaut, Arabia. Brit. Mus. 
Reg. no. 1937.6.5.1. 

Measurements of Type. — Wing 182 mm. 

Remarks. — Mr. Ingram s's collector obtained nine examples 
from Wadi Izhab, Tarib, and Al'Aibara, the wing-measurements 
of which are: five males, 178-192; four females, 174-180 mm. 
Colonel Boscawen in 1933 collected one at Wadi Sir. Mr. H. 
St. J. Philby brought back a female from Wadi Ansas, 
near Shabwa, farther to the north-west, and a male obtained 
on the same day, but farther west, is intermediate. A male 
shot by Colonel Boscawen at Wadi Dhurra, in Nisab area, 
west of the Wadi Do'an in April 1933 is typical, and a female 
he obtained in Socotra in March 1934 cannot be distinguished 
from Hadhramaut specimens. 

Mr. Philip A. Glance y sent the following description of 
a new race of Wren from West Scotland : — 

A series of winter and early spring Wrens from south-west 
Scotland — Ayrshire, Renfrewshire, and Lanarkshire — has, 



143 [Vol. lvii. 

after very careful comparison, proved to be distinct from 
any described race of Wren. 

I propose, therefore, to name the new Wren 

Troglodytes troglodytes indigenus, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Like Troglodytes t. troglodytes, but very much 
darker and richer brown on the upper parts, especially on the 
crown and nape ; under parts as in Troglodytes t. troglodytes. 

Distribution. — As known at present, south-west Scotland, 
but in all probability the greater part of the western Scottish 
mainland. 

Type. — Adult female, Carmunnock, Lanarkshire, S.W. 
Scotland, April 24, 1937. In my collection. 

Measurements of the Type. — Wing 47 mm. ; culmen 14 ; 
tarsus 17 ; tail 30. 

Remarks. — Three males from this region have wings of 
51 mm., which is greater than that given by Hartert for the 
typical race. 

My grateful thanks are due to Dr. James M. Harrison for 
his kind assistance. 

Mr. Gregory M. Mathews sent the following description 
of a new Shearwater from Bunbury, Geographe Bay, South- 
western Australia : — 

Puffinus leptorhynchus, sp. nov. The Slender-billed 
Shearwater. 

Description. — Entire upper surface blackish-brown, including 
the upper wing- coverts ; entire under surface white, including 
the under tail- coverts ; the dark feathers encroach on to the 
cheeks below the lower mandible ; primaries and tail-feathers 
blackish-brown ; under-wing lining greyish- white, most of 
the feathers with dark shafts, recalling the same feathers in 
Puffinus griseus, a wide band of dark feathers running round 
the wing and surrounding the white ; bill dark blackish-horn 
colour, darkest at the tips of both mandibles and lighter 
towards the base, especially of the lower mandible, where it 
becomes flesh colour ; outer toe and part of the outside of 

a2 



Vol. lvii.] 144 

the tarsus dark horn colour, inner toes and side of the tarsus 
flesh colour ; webs cream. 

Distribution. — South-western Australian Seas. 

Type. — An unsexed adult from Bunbury, collected in April 
1937 by Mr. F. Lawson Whittock. In my collection. 

Measurements of Type. — Total length 370 mm. ; wing 
228 ; culmen 36 ; tarsus 42 ; tail 71 ; middle toe and claw 48 ; 
closed bill at the base 8 mm. wide by 8 mm. deep. 

Remarks. — The finding of this bird in south-western Austra- 
lian seas is not a surprise, as many observers maintained 
that a form of Iherminieri was to be found in these waters. 
We must await further specimens before we can say accurately 
whether it is a subspecies of that form or not. The measure- 
ments negative that idea at present. Perhaps it is nearer 
the Manx Shearwater. 

Mr. Mathews also sent the following notes on Storm-Petrels, 
with a description of a new species and a new genus : — 

The examination of the type of Diomedea gilliana Coues, 
1866, kindly sent over to the British Museum by Dr. R. M. de 
Schauensee from Philadelphia, proves it to be a D. melanophris 
bird, as most workers thought. As it is an immature, with no 
locality, I place it as an absolute synonym of D. melanophris. 

The other type sent over is that of Gould's Thalassidroma 
leucogaster. It has proved to be a Fregetta grallaria bird, and is 
Fregetta tristanensis, 1932, the correct name being Fregetta 
aquerea Kuhl, 1820. 

This has upset all my deductions drawn up in the past, 
when I considered a bird in the British Museum to be Gould's 
type ; and, therefore, the following correction should be made. 
Although I know that corrections seldom or never overtake the 
original mistake, yet I hope all fellow workers will see this 
note. Gould's type of T. leucogaster is described as follows : — 

Adult. — General colour above dark blackish-brown, the 
head darker ; the feathers of the back with white fringes ; 
rump and upper tail- coverts white, the longest white feathers 
have a dark subterminal band and a white fringe, the dark 
feathers of the back extending on to the white rump, almost 
dividing it ; these dark feathers have white fringes ; outer 



145 [Vol. lvii. 

tail-feathers with outer web dark, inner web white, like all 
but the central pair, which is all dark. Wing 155 mm. ; 
tail 76 ; bill 14 ; tarsus 38 ; middle toe and claw 23. 

As it has been proved that Thalassidrom,a leucogaster of 
Gould is a synonym of Procellaria grallaria Vieillot, then the 
genus Fregetta must be used for that species instead of 
Fregettornis, thus leaving T. tropica without a genus. 

The genus Cymodroma Ridgway, 1884, must follow Fregetta 
as a synonym, as it is a substitute name for Fregetta Bp., not 
Fregata Brisson. 

In Procellaria grallaria the toes, with claw, are more or less 
of equal length, and the claws " plate-shaped," as Kuhl 
noticed in 1820 ; and Bonaparte in 1855 said of them, "larges 
ongles de Grebes presque humains." 

In Thalassidroma tropica the inner toe and claw is from 
2-5-3 mm. shorter than the middle toe and claw, and the 
claws more pointed than in F. grallaria. 

I propose the new generic name 

FREGODROMA 

for Thalassidroma tropica Gould as indicated by the construction 
of the foot. 

Some writers maintain that the toes and claws of Procellaria 
grallaria of Vieillot (type in the Paris Museum) are the same 
as these parts of Thalassidroma tropica of Gould (type in the 
British Museum). To anyone who examines these birds this 
is obviously not the case. It has been claimed that the toes 
of F. grallaria are rounded because they have been worn 
away by digging their nesting tunnels, but in the fuJly matured 
young which have not left the nest this same shape is observed 
in the claws. 

In the large subspecies of F. grallaria, called by Murphy 
F. titan, the middle toe and claw is as long or longer than the 
same part of F. tropica ; the minimum measurement as given 
by Murphy is 23-6 mm. and the maximum 27, the average 
being 25-1 mm. for the males and 25-8 for the females. In the 
typical F. grallaria the average length of the middle toe and 
claw is about 23 mm. 



Vol. lvii.] 146 

In the form I called Fregetta leucogaster deceptis in 1932 
the foot is shaped as in F. tropica, and so differs materially 
from the foot of F. grallaria. 

As T. leucogaster of Gould is a synonym of F. grallaria, 
then the form I described as F. deceptis must be admitted as 
a species. In all the specimens examined, the inner toe and 
claw is much shorter than the middle toe and claw. In all 
the F. grallaria I have examined, including the type, the toes, 
with claws, are of about equal length. 

The genus Fregodroma can be defined as follows : — 

Differs from Fregetta Bp. in having the inner toe and claw 
shorter than the other toes (in F. grallaria and subspecies 
the toes, with claws, are of about even length) ; also in having 
the bill smaller and more compressed. 

Now we come to the bird considered by me in the past to be 
the type of Gould's Thalassidroma leucogaster. It resembles 
a bird in the British Museum collected at sea by Macgillivray 
on January 7, 1853, in lat. 37 \ S., long. 42° E., north-north- 
west of the Crozets, in the Indian Ocean, which can be 
described as new as 

Fregodroma leucothysanus, sp. no v. 

Adult. — General colour above blackish-brown, darker on the 
head ; the feathers on the back with white fringes ; rump and 
upper tail-coverts white, with no dark subterminal band so 
often seen in Fregetta grallaria ; the dark feathers on the back 
encroach on to the white rump in the middle in a V-formation ; 
tail-feathers black, with the base of the inner web white, 
central four all black ; shafts of all the tail-feathers light- 
coloured at the base ; upper wing-coverts brownish ; primaries 
black ; throat whitish, the feathers with dark tips ; breast 
like the hind neck ; lower chest, sides of the body, and vent 
white, the long outer under tail-coverts with a broad sub- 
terminal dark band and fringed with white ; central ones white 
with a faint fringe of brown ; axillaries white ; inner under - 
wing lining pure white ; next series brown with white edges ; 
round the head of the wing a band of dark- brown ; under 
aspect of primaries grey towards the base, where the outer 
edges of the feathers are fringed with white. The tarsus is 
booted in front, reticulated behind. 



147 [Vol. lvii. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Collected at sea by 
Macgillivray, January 7, 1853, in lat. 37^° S., long. 42° E., 
north-north-west of the Crozets, Indian Ocean. Brit. Mus. 
Reg. no. 1855.10.23.10. 

Measurements of Type. — -Wing 160 mm. ; bill 14 ; tail 72 ; 
tarsus 40 ; middle toe and claw 26 ; outer 26 ; inner 24. 

Remarks. — The shape of the foot will always distinguish this 
bird from Fregetta grallaria ; the form called F. titan has the 
length of the foot about the same, but the shorter inner toe 
of this form prevents confusion ; this bird also has a smaller, 
more compressed bill than F. grallaria, and, of course, much 
more different from F. titan. 

Dr. C. B. Ticehurst forwarded the following description : — 
Pteruthius erythropterus yunnanensis, subsp. no v. 

Description . — Male . Differs from P. zeralatus (N. Tenasserim) 
in the grey, not white throat and breast, and by its larger 
size. Same size as P. ricketti, but ear-coverts black, and divided 
from the grey of the cheeks, etc., by a thin white line ; in 
ricketti the ear-coverts are slate-grey, insensibly shading into 
the grey of the cheeks, etc. 

Distribution. — Hills east of Bhamo and east of Myitkyina 
in Upper Burma ; N.W. Yunnan to N. Tonkin. 

Type. — Male. Shweli-Salween Divide, N.W. Yunnan, Dec. 
1919. Col. Stephenson-Clarke Coll. In Brit. Mus. ; Reg. no. 
1921.7.15.331. 

Measurements. — Male, wing 84-88-5 mm. ; P. seralatus, male, 
wing 78-83 mm. 

Material examined. — Long series from N. Tenasserim 
(P. seralatus) ; long series from Fokien (P. ricketti) ; eight from 
N.E. Burma ; three from N.W. Yunnan, three from N. Tonkin. 

Note. — Birds from S. Shan States are P. seralatus. Probably 
the form P. e. yunnanensis begins to change in N. Tonkin, 
as the population is there not quite stable, as already noted 
by Delacour. Dr. Mayr kindly examined material not seen 
by me in the American Museum of Natural History from 
N. Yunnan and N. Tonkin and confirms the separation of P. e. 
yunnanensis. I consider all races P. flaviscapis, P. seralatus, 
P. ricketti, and P. yunnanensis to be forms of P. erythropterus 
of the Himalayas. 



Vol. lvii.] 148 

Messrs. T. H. Harrisson and A. J. Marshall sent the 
following description of a new species of Aplonis from the 
New Hebrides : — 

During the period of 1933-34 when we were members of 
the Oxford University Expedition to the New Hebrides, 
considerable attention was paid to the misty, difficult-of- 
access, moss-forest regions, which usually began at an altitude 
of about 3000 feet. Here the matted rain-forest, so typical 
of tropical countries, gives way to a dripping world of mists and 
rotting vegetation, of scarlet " flame-trees," tree-ferns, patches 
of tough Pandanus-ipalm, and, above all, a luxuriant flora of 
mosses, tree-creepers, and epiphytic orchids and pitcher-plants. 

General accounts have already appeared in the ' Geographical 
Journal,' and a general study of the avifauna of these upland 
regions, as well as an exhaustive summary of lowland work, 
is in preparation. 

Aplonis santovestris, sp. no v. 

Strikingly distinguishable from all other members of the 
genus by its rufous coloration and its altitudinal distribution 
and habits. 

Description. — Female. Blackish head (with trace of brown) ; 
dark brown neck ; dark rufous-brown back ; dark rufous 
upper tail- coverts ; primaries dark brown ; secondaries and 
tertials dark brown with outer edges dark rufous ; under 
wing- coverts paler ; throat rufous, breast darker and richer 
rufous ; under tail- coverts warm rufous ; tail dark brown. 
Bill brownish -black with paler tip ; gape yellowish ; iris 
grey -green ; fleshy parts brown. 

Distribution. — Probably confined to the misty uplands of 
Santo. The bird was not collected by Harrisson on either 
Omba or Malekula, where he later worked ; neither was it 
seen on Gaua, in the Banks Group slightly north. It seems 
to have a parallel distribution to Cichlornis whitneyi, of 
which a series of specimens was obtained. 

Type. — Female. In the British Museum. Collected on Mt. 
Watiamasan, N.W. Santo, 4000 feet, on May 25, 1934, by 
T. H. Harrisson and A. J. Marshall. Brit. Mus. Beg. no. 
1937.5.15.1. 



149 [Vol. lvii. 

Measurements of Type. — Wing 96 ; culmen 20 ; tail 55 ;.. 
tarsus 28 mm. 

Remarks. — A gonad examination revealed the type to be 
in full breeding condition. It was collected in May 1934. 

A male — possibly juvenile — in non-breeding condition is 
similar, except for a very slightly paler throat and a smaller 
size in general to the females. Collected in Mt. Tabwemasana 
(3800 feet) region, November 1933. 

A third specimen, also collected on Mt. Watiamasan, is 
somewhat larger than the type, but its gonad condition was 
negative and possibly juvenile, and its bill was damaged by shot. 

Average measurements for four specimens (one in spirit) 
are : wing 99 mm. ; tail 55-7 ; culmen 17-3 (3 specimens) ; 
tarsus 27-7. 

So unlike is this bird to the rest of the genus Aplonis that 
a subsequent survey of the group may make it necessary to 
create a new genus or subgenus. Aplonis and its relatives as 
arranged by Sharpe must be considered very artificial ; the 
best arrangements seems to be those of Hartert and Strese- 
mann . Dr. Ernst Mayr has recently discussed the limitations 
and generic characters of the genus Aplonis (Mitt. Zoolog. 
Museum Berlin, vol. ii. p. 335), and we are indebted to him 
for comparing our material with that in the Amer. Mus. 
Nat. Hist. 

Aplonis santovestris apparently most closely resembles 
A. pelzelni from Ponape, especially in bill and tarsus. It 
differs very considerably from A. rufipennis of the lowlands, 
which is a bird of the tree-tops and very scarce in the cloud- 
belt. The mountain bird is unobtrusive and solitary, 
and sub-terrestrial in that it is rarely observed higher than 
fifteen feet, and is completely at home among the rotting 
stumps and mossy lower foliage. 

According to native information, A. santovestris nests in 
a hole of a tree close to the ground, and lays two white eggs. 
It is usually found singly or in pairs, never in flocks. The 
Tabwemasana people know it as " Mataweli." It lives on 
berries, fruits, and seeds. Calls heard were a thin hissing 
note and an unemotional harsh Thrush-like call. In the 
bush it sits silently on low boughs and stumps, flitting swiftly 



Vol. lvii.] 150 

away through the dripping foliage when disturbed. It is 
wholly a bird of the damp upland jungles ; the natives say 
that " Mataweli " is afraid of the sun, and so never ventures 
into the sun-drenched lowlands. 

Mr. G. L. Bates sent the following descriptions of two 
new races of Arabian birds : — 

Otus senegalensis pamelse, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Outermost remex about equal to the seventh. 
Length of wing in the three adult specimens : 147 mm. 
(type), 147 and 144 in the others, and 140 in one not quite 
adult. (The wing in Otus senegalensis senegalensis is usually 
well under 140 mm., and never over that.) The character 
of size is that most relied on ; but the plumage of the Arabian 
specimen has a more dingy or earthy general appearance 
when compared with African, and the blackish shaft-streaks are 
not nearly so heavy and conspicuous in the Arabian as in the 
African. These remarks apply to juvenile Arabian specimens 
also when compared with African of the same age. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Collected by H. St. J. B. 
Philby (no. 1224) at Dailami in Wadi Bisha, Arabia, May 26, 
1936. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1937.4.17.1. 

Remarks. — The first four specimens sent, an adult (the 
type) and three juveniles, have already been reported in 
the ' Bulletin ' (lvii. p. 19). Four more have now been 
received, collected at Najran in the last days of June and the 
first days of July, 1936, of which only one is fully adult. But 
another adult specimen has been found in the British Museum, 
collected by Bury in the Amiri district north of Aden in 1901 . 
As the Owl is the emblem of the Athenaeum Club, of which 
Mr. Philby is a member, this new race has been named, at 
his suggestion, after Miss Pamela Lovibond, Librarian of 
the Athenaeum. 

Chrysococcyx klaasi arabicus, subsp. no v. 

Description. — Female differing from typical African Chryso- 
coccyx klaasi' in having dark outer rectrices, the outer webs of 
which have no light spots or only the slightest scarcely visible 
edge-spots, whereas in all specimens of klaasi from Africa, 



151 [Vol. lvii. 

of whatever age or sex, all rectrices except the two middle 
pairs are mostly white, with only some dark spots or bars. 
The Arabian bird has also less white and wider dark bronzy 
bars on the long thigh-feathers and the under tail- coverts 
than any of this species from Africa. 

Type. — In the British Museum. Female, collected by 
H. St. J. B. Philby (no. 1907) at Asar (altitude 4500 ft.) near 
Faifa in Asir, December 28, 1936. Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 
1937.4.17.2. 

Measurements of Type. — Wing 94 mm., tail 71, tarsus 15. 

Remarks. — There is also in the British Museum a juvenile 
specimen of a Chrysococcyx collected by Bury at Ichaf, Amiri 
district, August 2 [1901], that was first identified as C. cupreus. 
Capt. Grant, when working on this genus recently, noticed 
that Bury's bird w a s a juvenile C. Jclaasi and not C. cupreus. 
This young bird has the same characters of the tail as Philby's 
adult (or nearly adult) female. These two seem to belong 
to a distinct Arabian form, of which the female and juvenile 
plumages are so like Chrysococcyx klaasi that it can be con- 
sidered as a subspecies of it, at least until the adult male is 
discovered. 

[Note. — Mr. G. L. Bates places his new race in the genus Chrysococcyx ; 
but the majority of authors place klaasi in the genus Lampromorpha. — 
Editor.] 

Prof. Oscar Neumann sent the following descriptions of 
four new races from Sumatra and the Mentawi Archipelago, 
all collected by J. J. Menden. The types are now in the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology in Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

Hemiprocne comata stresemanni, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Male and female. Similar to H. c. comata 
Temminck, but somewhat darker and more washed with olive- 
green. The gloss of the head and the upper wing- coverts 
slightly more green and less blue than in H. c. comata. 

Distribution. — Mentawi Archipelago, west of Sumatra. 

Type. — Male, North Pagi Island, Mentawi Archipelago, 
10. i. 1934, J. J. Menden leg. 

Measurements of a typical series. — Wing 123-127 mm. 



Vol. lvii.] 152 

Remarks. — Five males and three females from North 
Pagi Island were compared with six specimens of H. c. comata 
from Sumatra and Malacca. H. c. major Hartert from the 
Philippine Islands agrees perfectly with H. c. comata in colour, 
but is considerably larger. 

Named after Prof. Erwin Stresemann, the greatest authority 
on Oriental Micropodidse. 

Pericrocotus miniatus dammermani, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Female differs from the female of P. m. mini- 
atus, from Java, by having the larger part of the upperside, viz. 
interscapular region and back, of a mixture of grey, brown, 
and pink or rosy -red, while there is scarcely any or but a faint 
admixture of pink or rosy-red in these parts in the female of 
P. m. miniatus. In the latter race the upperside of the female 
very much resembles that of the male, being only lighter, 
more brown, while in P. m. dammermani the sexes are very 
different, also when seen from above. 

Distribution. — High mountains of South Sumatra, probably 
of the whole of Sumatra. 

Type. — Female, GunongDempu (South Sumatra), at 2500 m., 
20. vii. 36, J. J. Menden leg. 

Measurements of a typical series. — Male and female, wing 
79-82 mm. There is no difference at all between the males of 
P. m. dammermani and those of P. m. miniatus. 

Remarks. — Two females collected by Menden and two females 
collected in or near the same region by Jacobson were com- 
pared with a series of about twelve females (or perhaps also 
some young males) from Mt. Gedeh, Papandajan, and Tjerimai 
in Western Java. 

Named in honour of Dr. Dammerman, the Director of the 
Buitenzorg Museum. 

Napothera epilepidota mendeni, subsp. nov. 

Description. — In every respect intermediate between 
N. e. diluta (Rob. & Kloss) from the Korinchi and Ophir 
districts and N. e. epilepidota (Temm.) from Western and 
Central Java. It is much darker than the former, both 
above and below, but not quite so blackish as the Javan race. 
It shows a yellowish-red zone on the underside, though 
not so strong as in the Javan race. 



153 [Vol. lvii. 

Distribution. — Mt. Dempu, but probably also on all high 
forested mountains of Southern Sumatra south of the 
Bengkoelen district. 

Type. — Female, Gunong Dempu, at 1800 m., S.W. Sumatra, 
21. vii. 1936. J. J. Menden leg. 

Measurements of a typical series. — Wing 53-56 mm. 

Remarks. — Three specimens from Mt. Dempu were compared 
with three specimens from Korinchi and Ophir. 

In the large chain of races of which N. e. amyse Kinnear 
from northern French Indo-China is the most northern one, 
the northern races are the palest, especially on the under- 
side ; the races becoming more pigmented towards Sumatra 
and Java. It appears that no race has yet been recorded from 
Eastern Java. 

Lanius schach sumatrae, subsp. nov. 

Description. — Very similar to L. schach bentet Horsf. from 
Western Java, but the frontal bar narrows in most species and 
always very sharply defined from the grey head. The rufous 
wash on the rump and the flanks still paler (cf. remarks below). 

Distribution. — Sumatra. 

Type. — Male, Gunong Dempu, S.W. Sumatra, at 1800 m., 
28. vii. 1936, J. J. Menden leg. 

Remarks. — To decide the question whether Lanius schach 
tosariensis Kuroda from Eastern Java was really a mere 
synonym of L. s. bentet Horsf., described from Western Java, 
and to find out how many races of Lanius schach might be 
distinguished in the Sunda Islands, I had brought together 
forty-one adult specimens from this region, viz., fifteen from 
Sumatra, twelve from Western Java, four from Eastern Java, 
seven from Bali, one from Lombok, one from Sumbawa, two 
from Eastern Timor, and one from Alor. 

I found that in the Western Java series about 70 per cent, 
had a more or less defined frontal bar, while in about 30 per cent, 
almost the whole cap was black. In Eastern Java the reverse 
was the case. Therefore, I think, we can let L. schach tosari- 
ensis Kuroda stand, though it would have been far better 
to name the Bali population ; for of seven Bali specimens 
six have an almost totally black cap, and so have the specimens 



Vol. lvii.] 154 

from Lombok, Sumbawa, Alor, and at least the one Timor 
specimen. This approaches the result arrived at by Dr. Gadow 
when writing on this species in the ' Catalogue of Birds ' 
vol. viii. pp. 266, 267. 

Of the fifteen adult Sumatran specimens from all parts of this 
island from Atjeh, Deli District, Fort de Kock, Bengkoelen, 
Von Volack, and Gung Dempu, not one has a wholly black 
cap, but all exhibit a rather narrow frontal bar, which is 
sharply denned against the grey head. 

In this respect the Sumatran population very much resembles 
L. schach caniceps from Ceylon and Southern India, from which 
it is distinguished in the first place by the colour of the tail. 
While in L. sumatrse, as well as in L. bentet and L. tosariensis, 
only the two outer tail-feathers are greyish -brown, and 
all the others are black, in L. caniceps, as well as in L. erythro- 
notus, only the middle pair or the two middle pairs are black, 
while all other tail-feathers are light greyish -brown. It is 
deplorable that the first two names are given to the Javan 
population, with its great variation in specimens, while the 
Sumatran population and that of the Lesser Sunda Islands 
to the east of Java shows very little variation. 

There is very little variation in size in this great series. 
The wing measures in Sumatran and in West Javan specimens 
from 87 to 92 mm., but one male from Deli, Sumatra, has 
a wing of 96 mm. The sexing seems not to have been correct 
in all cases, but females seem to be always somewhat smaller 
than the males. The two Eastern Java specimens are slightly 
larger — wing 90, 92, 93, and 95 mm. Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, 
and Alor specimens have wings from 89 to 92 mm., but the 
two Timor specimens only 86 and 87 mm. 

I have to acknowledge the loan of comparison material 
from Prof, de Beaufort (Amsterdam), Prof. Pax (Breslau), 
Prof. Laubmann (Munich), Dr. Junge (Leiden), and for 
valuable information to Dr. Junge and Mr. N. B. Kinnear. 

The Marquess Hachisuka sent the following description 
of Mundy's Yellow Rail from Mauritius: — 

Peter Mundy, the only describer and delineator of this flight- 
less Yellow Rail from Mauritius, was born about the year 1596 



155 [Vol. Ivii. 

at Penryn in Cornwall, and is supposed to have died about 
1667 in his native town. 

The account of his travels, very carefully prepared by 
himself, has long remained in manuscript and unpublished 
in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, while there is a second, 
less complete copy in the British Museum. 

The second volume of his Journal, published in 1919 by the 
Hakluyt Society, contains an account of Mundy's first voyage 
to India, and proves to us that he was, like Francois Leguat, 
one of the most observant and truthful of all the older travellers. 
On his outgoing voyage in March 1633-34 he passed the island 
of Mauritius without calling there, but in 1638, when homeward 
bound from China, he called at the island and wrote a glowing 
account of the scenery, salubrity, and natural productions. 

Mundy figures a strange -looking fowl and calls it "A Mauritius 
henne." Its description is as follows : — 

"A Mauritius henne, a Fowle as bigge as our English hennes, 
of a yellowi[s]h Wheaten coullour, of which wee gotte only one. 
It hath a bigge long Crooked sharpe pointed bill, Feathered 
all over, butt on their wings they are soe Few and smalle 
thatt they cannott with them raise themselves From the ground. 

" There is a pretty way off taking of them with a redde 
Cappe, butt this strucke with a sticke. They bee very good 
Meat, and are allsoe Cloven Footed, soe thatt the[y] Can 
Neyther Fly nor swymme More then the Former. 

" Off these 2 sorts off Fowle afformentioned [Mundy first 
mentions the Dodo, Raphus cucullatus] , For oughtt wee yett 
know, Not any to bee Found out off this Hand, which lyeth 
aboutt 100 leagues From St Lawrence [Madagascar]." 

On looking through Mundy's drawings my attention was 
immediately brought to the accuracy and the extraordinary 
execution of the natural objects, but the " Henne " is the 
only composition which looks somewhat elementary, especially 
in its posture. The reason for this is that Mundy saw only one 
bird, which he killed, and the drawing must have been made 
from a dead specimen. The details, however, seem to be 
true to life. 

Mr. W. L. Sclater's article, " The Mauritius Hen of Peter 
Mundy," Ibis, 1915, pp. 316-319, fig. 5, constitutes the sole 



Vol. lvii.] 156 

scientific study of this bird, in which it is referred to as 
Aphanapteryx broeckii. 

I cannot, however, share this opinion. Aphanapteryx 
has the dark cinnamon red plumage loose like Apteryx, with 
very small decomposed wing-feathers ; it has no tail, while the 
" Mauritius henne " although short, has proper primaries ; 
the plumage is yellow, and each feather is not loose and 
decomposed like that of Aphanapteryx. It also has a character- 
istic Ralline tail. 

The " Mauritius henne " therefore belongs to a totally 
different genus. I propose to call it 

KUINA, gen. no v. 

Wing small, incapable of flight. Size as big as a hen ; bill 
long, pointed and decurved ; tarsus and toes heavy and strong, 
the latter not long, adapted for walking on hard ground ; 
general colour of plumage yellowish-wheaten. 

The generic name is the word for Water -Rail in Japanese. 

Kuina mundyi, sp. no v. 

Mauritius henne, 'Peter Mundy's Journal,' 1608-1667. 

" Mauritius Hen " of Peter Mundy, Sclater, Ibis, pp. 316- 
319, with fig., 1915. 

Mauritius hen, ' The Travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and 
Asia,' 1608-1667, publ. Hakluyt Soc, vol. hi. p. 352, with fig., 
1919. 

Distribution. — Mauritius. 

Description. — Entire body is yellowish-wheaten colour, 
that is to say, it is of light buffish- brown on the dorsal part, 
gradually lightening as it goes to the abdominal part of the body, 
which is yellowish -buff. In Mundy's drawing each feather has 
a dark- coloured portion which is probably dark brown. 
Wing has proper primary feathers, but short and not service- 
able for lifting the heavy body from the ground, but it spreads 
and beats them when the birds make an effort to run fast. 
I have seen this among the Leysan Island Flightless Rail under 
captivity. The tail is normally developed, and no doubt 
moved up and down like that of all the members of the Ralline 
family. Mandible long, pointed, and decurved ; legs heavy ; 
toes fairly short, but thick and strong, adapted for hard 



157 [Vol. Mi. 

cursorial habits. Kuina looks altogether like a gigantic 
fat Corn-Crake (Crex) with long pointed bill. 

Mr. J. Delacour sent the following note : — 
In ' L'Oiseau et la Rev. Franc. d'Ornithologie,' vol. vi. 
no. 3, p. 377, 1937, I proposed the generic name Phoeonetta 
for Anas erythrophthalma Wied, Beitr. Naturg. Brasil, iv. 1832, 
p. 929 (Villa Belmonte, S. Brazil). I had overlooked that it 
had been used for Anas fusca Linn, by Witmer Stone, ' The 
Auk,' vol. xxiv. 1907, p. 198. I therefore propose the new 
name 

Phceoaythia ; type, Anas erythrophthalma Wied. 

This peculiar duck differs conspicuously in life from the species 
of the genus Nyroca, with which it has so far been usually united, 
in its lighter, more elongate proportions, longer neck, and 
narrower bill . It is more closely related to Netta and Metopiana . 
Its distribution in South America and Africa is remarkable. 

Capt. C. H. B. Grant and Mr. C. W. Mackworth-Praed 
sent the following seven notes : — 

(1) On the Type-locality of Tyto alba affinis Blyth, Ibis, 1862, 

p. 388. 

Blyth gives Cape of Good Hope and a reference to Journ. 
Asiat. Soc. xxix. 1860, p. 100, where the specimen of Strix 
flammeus is listed as having been received from the Govern- 
ment Museum, Cape Town, through E. L. Layard. This 
specimen is the type of Blyth's Strix affinis, and we learn 
from the Director of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, under 
date April 8, 1937, that this type is no longer in existence. 

The next place this name appears in is Layard's Bds. of 
S. Africa, 1867, p. 43, where he gives the Cape as a locality. 
We therefore consider that the exact type -locality of Tyto 
alba affinis Blyth can be fixed as Cape Town, Cape Province, 
South Africa. 

(2) On the Type-locality of Tyto capensis capensis A. Smith, 

S. Afr. Quart. Journ. 2nd ser. 1834, p. 317. 
In the c South African Quarterly Journal ' Smith gives South 
Africa only, but in the ' Illustrations to Zoology,' 1849, pi. xiv., 



Vol. Mi.] 158 

he states " obtained near Cape Town." Cape Town can 
therefore be taken as the exact type-locality of Tyto capensis 
capensis A. Smith. 

(3) On the Type -locality of Carine noctua somaliensis 

Reichenow, Vog. Afr. hi. 1905, p. 822. 

Reichenow gives only Somaliland, but also a reference 
to Erlanger, J. f. O. 1904, p. 238. 

Erlanger lists six birds obtained by him at Arowena, North 
Somaliland .As Reichenow did not designate a type, he 
must have based his new name on Erlanger's specimens. 
We can thus fix the exact type -locality of Carine noctua 
somaliensis Reichw. as Arowena, eastern Abyssinia. 

(4) On the Type-locality of Bubo capensis dillonii Des Murs 

& Prevost, Rev. Zool. 1846, p. 242. 

This name is based on a specimen obtained by Petit and 
Quartin-Dillon. Reference to their Vog. en Abyssinie, Zool. 
vi. 1850, p. 74, shows that this Owl was killed at Ouodgerate. 

We can therefore fix the exact type-locality of Bubo capensis 
dillonii Des Murs & Prev. as Ouodgerate, north-eastern 
Abyssinia. 

(5) On the Type-locality of Bubo africanus cinerascens Guerin- 

Meneville, Rev. Zool. 1843, p. 321. 

The usual type-locality is merely Abyssinia. This name 
was based on a specimen obtained by Petit & Quartin-Dillon. 
On p. 76 of vol. vi. of their Vog. en Abyssinie, Zool. 1850, 
we find that this Owl was encountered at Adowa, August 
1839 and July 1844, at Gondar in February and March 1840, 
and at Chire in September 1840. 

We can therefore fix the exact type-locality of Bubo africanus 
cinerascens Guer. as Adowa, northern Abyssinia. 

(6) On the Races of Pel's Fishing-Owl, Scotopelia peli, 

Bonaparte. 

Zedlitz, O.M. xvi. 1908, p. 172, names two races, thus 
recognizing three, and gives six points to support this. 

Sclater, Syst. Av. iEthiop. i. 1924, p. 247, recognizes two 
races, and places 8, salvago-raggii as a species. 



159 [Vol. lvii. 

We have carefully examined thirteen adults and one nestling 
as follows : one from Gabon, one from Nigeria, two from 
French Equatorial Africa, one from Northern Rhodesia, four 
from Northern Nyasaland, three from the Zambesi River, 
and one from Natal. The nestling is from the Cameroons. 

All the six characters given by Zedlitz are to be found in 
all or any of the above specimens, and, moreover, judging 
by the nestling, the paler birds with narrower markings are 
not adult. The young in immature dress is represented by 
three specimens in the British Museum Collection, i. e., one from 
Nigeria (Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1884.1.10.388), one from northern 
Nyasaland (Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1894.5.5.141), and one from 
the Zambesi (Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 1863.12.8.34). 

Bannerman, Bds. Trop. W. Afr. hi. 1933, pp. 47-48, also 
considers that S. f. fischeri cannot stand. 

We are therefore only able to recognize one species, as 
follows : — 

Scotopelia peli Bonaparte, Consp. Av.i. 1850, p. 44 : Ashantee, 
Gold Coast, West Africa ; of which Scotopelia peli fischeri 
Zedlitz, O.M. xvi. 1908, p. 172 : Kau, Tana River, Kenya 
Colony, and Scotopelia peli salvago-raggii Zedlitz, O.M. xvi. 
1908, p. 172 : Middle Tacazze River, Eritrea, are synonyms. 

Distribution. — From Senegal and Eritrea to Angola, Natal, 
and eastern Cape Province. 

(7) On the Type-locality of Zosterops toroensis Reichenow. 

Miss Cynthia Longfield has very kindly drawn our attention 
to the correct position of Bwamba. 

We have re-examined the maps and agree that Buamba is 
the same area as Bwamba, now in the Toro area of Uganda, 
and is situated to the north-west of the Ruwenzori Mountains. 
The correct type-locality of Zosterops toroensis should therefore 
be Kitamba, Bwamba, north-west of Ruwenzori Mountains, 
Toro, Uganda. The name given to this bird by Reichenow is, 
therefore, geographically correct. 



Vol. lvii.] 160 

Corrigenda to Vol. lvii. 

P. 27, line 8, for H. javonica read H. javanica. 

P. 27, line 13, for Bernies read Bernier. 

P. 27, lines 22 and 24, for Bart le Frere read Bartle Frere. 

P. 37, measurements, line 2, for 54-4 X 32-5 read 50-4 X 32-5. 

P. 40, line 10, for gallingao read gallinago. 

P. 44, line 5, for 1926 read 1936. 

P. 49, date of issue, for January 5, 1936 read January 5, 1937. 

P. 64, lines 10, 12, and 13, for C. collybita read P. c. collybita. 

P. 69, line 27, for M. a maxima read M. m. maxima. 

P. 69, line 30, for M. a. africana read M. m. africana. 

P. 80, line 17, for Mlulu read Mbulu. 

P. 121, line 1, for keyseri read Jceysseri. 

P. 123, line 18, for Brit. Mus. Reg. no. 111.721 read 41.721. 



NOTICES. 

The next Meeting of the Club will he held on Wednesday, 
October 13, 1937, at the Rembrandt Hotel, Thurloe Place, S.W. 7. 
The Dinner at 7 p.m. 

Members intending to dine must inform the Hon. Secretary, 
Dr. A. Landsborough Thomson, 16 Tregunter Road, S.W. 10, 
on the post-card sent out before the Meeting. 

Members who wish to make any communication at the 
next Meeting of the Club should give notice to the Editor, 
Capt. C. H. B. Grant, 58a Ennismore Gardens, S.W. 7. The 
titles of their contributions will then appear on the Agenda 
published before the Meeting. All MSS. for publication in 
the ' Bulletin ' must be given to the Editor before or at the 
Meeting. 






INDEX. 



I Names of new species and subspecies are indicated by clarendon type 

under the generic entry only ; vernacular, or common, 

names are shown in ordinary type.] 



abyssinicus, Brady pter us ■ brachy- 

pterus, 43. 
— — , Dendropicos, 17. 
Accipiter brevipes, 18, 125. 
Acrocephalus bseticatus cinnamo- 

meus, 9, 10. 



10. 



minor, 9. 

nyong, subsp. nov., 



palustris, 98. 

schcenobsenus, 18. 

JEgialitis alexandrina, 45. 

■ niveifrons, 45. 

seralatus, Pteruthius, 147. 
afer humboldtii, Pternistis, 44. 

melanogaster, Pternistis, 44. 

affinis galilejensis, Colletoptera, 6. 

, Strix, 157. 

, Sylvia curruca, 52. 

, Tyto alba, 157. 

africana, Micropus melba, 69, 160. 
africanus cinerascens, Bubo, 158. 
Afropavo, 86, 124. 

congensis, 81, 84, 85, 124. 

Alauda arvensis intermedia, 17. 
alba affinis, Tyto, 157. 

, Motacilla, 6. 

albifrons gambelli, Anser, 96. 

sinensis, Sterna, 110, 111. 

, Sterna, 110, J 11. 

albigularis, Bessono lis, 79. 

, Callene, 78, 79. 

porotoensis, Bessonornis, 79. 

albo-cristatus, Buceros, 15. 
albocristatus, Tropicranus, 15. 
albus, Corvus, 52. 
Alectoris Cypriotes, 66. 
— — grseca, 65. 
Cypriotes, 66. 

VOL. LVII. 



Alectoris grseca philbyi, 19. 
SCOtti, subsp. nov., 65, 

66. 

kleini, 66. 

— ■ — ■ saxatilis, 65. 
Alethe, 79. 

macclounii, 79. 

macclouniei njombe, 79, 80. 

alexandrina, ASgialitis, 45. 
alexandrinus, Charadrius, 44, 45. 

■ seebohmi, Charadrius, 45. 

alexinee, Schoenicola brevirostris, 

71. 

■, Sphenoeacus, 70. 

alpestris bilopha, Eremophila, 17. 
Alphapuffinus assimilis glauerti, 

subsp. nov., 24. 

tunny i, 24. 

Alseonax cinereus kikuyuensis, 73. 

flavipes, 100. 

— — flavitarsus, nom. nov., 100. 

muttui, 100. 

alticola, Apalis, 99. 

— ■ — , thoracica, 99. 

altijugus, Casuarius casuarius, 121. 

altus, Phasianus, 86. 

Amandava, 67. 

amani, Dioptrornis fischeri, 73. 

Amaurodryas vittata bassi, 28. 

ambiguus permistus, Turtur, 103. 

— ■ — , Streptopelia decipiens, 103. 

— — , Turtur, 103. 

amy as, Napothera epilepidota, 153. 

^4nas erythrophthalma, 157. 

fusca, 157. 

anqolensis, Centropus monachus, 

117. 
— ■ — , Eremomela scotops, 111. 
— ■ — , Thripias namaquus, 10. 



Vol. lvii.] 



162 



Anser albifrons gambelli, 96. 
Anthus sordidus arabicus, 18. 
Apalis alticola, 99. 

bamendse bensoni, 105, 115. 

strausse, 105. 

cinerea cinerea, 72. 

funebris, subsp. nov., 

72. 
— — murina bensoni, subsp. nov., 

101, 114. 

murina, 101. 

rhodesias, 102. 

whitei, nom. nov., 114. 

youngi, 101. 

thoracica alticola, 99. 

drakensbergensis, nom. 



nov., 99. 

murina, 8. 

youngi, subsp. nov., 8. 

Aphanapteryx, 156. 

broeckii, 156. 

apiaster, Merops, 6. 
apicalis, Catriscus, 70. 
Aplonis, 148, 149. 

pelzelni, 149. 

rufipennis, 149. 

— — santovestris, sp. nov., 148, 

149. 
Apteryx, 156. 
aquerea, Fregetta, 144. 
arabica, Fringillaria tahapisi, 18. 
arabicus, Anthus sordidus, 18. 

, Chrysococcyx klaasi, 150. 

arborea, Lullula, 6. 
Arenaria interpres, 17. 
Arizelocichla chlorigula, 11. 

— schusteri, 11. 

schusteri, 1 1 . 

arminjoniana, Pterodroma, 25. 
Artisornis metopias, 105. 

bensoni, 114. 

arvensis intermedia, Alauda, 17. 

asirensis, Pica pica, 19. 

assimilis glauerti, Alphapuffinus, 

24. 

tunnyi, Alphapuffinus, 24. 

^4s£ur brevipes, 125. 
atricapilla, Sylvia, 6. 

, atricapilla, 135. 

atricristatus, Bseolophus, 57. 
auratus, Colaptes, 56. 
australis brevicera, Vinago, 116. 

salvadorii, Vinago, 115, 116. 

uellensis, Vinago, 115. 

, F-ma<70, 115. 

azurea, Goracina, 15. 

Bseolophus atricristatus, 57. 
bicolor, 57, 



Bseopogon indicator leucurus, 15. 

bseticatus cinnamomeus, Acroce- 
phalus, 9, 10. 

■ — ■ — ■ minor, Acrocephalus, 9. 

nyong, Acrocephalus, 9, 10. 

bamendse bensoni, Apalis, 105, 114. 

strausse, Apalis, 105. 

bangweoloensis, Melittophagus va- 
riegatus, 129, 130. 

bang si, Cuculus canorus, 89. 

Bantam, Stone-, 85. 

bassi, Amaurodryas vittata, 28. 

Bee-eater, European, 6. 

, Persian, 6, 99. 

belfordi brassi, Melidectes, 42. 

joiceyi, Melidectes, 42. 

kinneari, Melidectes, 42. 

bensoni, Apalis bamendse, 105, 114. 

, murina, 101, 114. 

, Artisornis metopias, 114. 

bentet, Lanius schach, 153, 154. 

Bessonornis, 78, 79. 

— — albigularis, 79. 

porotoensis, 79. 

grrotei, 79, 80. 

• macclounii grotei, 80. 

— ■ — ■ macclounii, 79, 80. 

— mbuluensis, subsp. nov., 

80. 

bicolor, Bseolophus, 57. 

6i/ie, Prinia flavicans, 7. 

bilopha, Eremophila alpestris, 17. 

Bittern, 109. 

Blackbird, 51, 134, 136. 

, Rusty, 36, 41. 

Blackcap, 6, 135. 

Blackcock, 106, 109. 

blanfordi, Calandrella, 14. 

eremica, Calandrella, 14. 

philbyi, Calandrella, 14. 

Bluethroat, Norwegian, 51. 

, White-spotted, 51. 

bonariensis, Molothrus bonariensis, 
34. 

brachydactila, Calandrella, 14. 

brachypterus abyssinicus, Brady- 
pterus, 43. 

centralis, Brady pterus, 43. 

chadensis, Brady pterus, 43. 

Bradypterus brachypterus abyssini- 
cus, 43. 

centralis, 43. 

chadensis, subsp. nov., 

43. 

brevirostris, 70. 

brassi, Melidectes belfordi, 42. 

brehmii, Phyllopneuste, 63. 

, Phylloscopus collybita, 63. 

brevicera, Treron calva, 116. 



163 



[Vol. lvii. 



brevicera, Vinago australis, 116. 
brevipennis, Calamodyta, 22. 
brevipes, Accipiter, 18, 125. 

, Astur, 125. 

brevirostris alexinse, Schcenicola, 7 1 

, Bradypterus, 70. 

, Schcenicola brevirostris, 70. 

brevis, Bycanistes cristatus, 137. 
britannica, Tringa totanus, 122. 
broeckii, Aphanapteryx, 156. 
brunneiceps, Schcenicola, 70, 71. 
Bubo africanus cinerascens, 158. 

capensis dillonii, 158. 

Buceros albo -cristatus, 15. 
bullockoides, Melittophagus, 129. 
Bunting, Lapland, 51. 

, Little, 51. 

, Reed-, 51. 

, Yellow-breasted, 51. 

burchellii, Gentropus, 90, 91, 92. 

, super ciliosus, 91, 92. 

fasciipygialis, Centropus, 91. 

Burhinus capensis dodsoni, 19. 
buryi, Parisoma, 18. 

, Scotocerca inquieta, 21. 

Bycanistes cristatus brevis, 137. 



cabanisi, Phyllastrephus, 126. 
cafer, Colaptes, 56. 
Calamodyta brevipennis, 22. 
Calamcecetor, gen. nom. nov., 22. 

jacksoni, 72. 

— — ■ leptorhyncha jacksoni, 7 1 . 

. — tsanae, subsp. nov., 71. 

nuerensis, 71, 72. 

Calamornis, 22. 
Calandrella, 14. 

blanfordi, 14. 

eremica, 14. 

• — • philbyi, 14. 

brachydactila, 14. 

caligata, Hippolais, 50. 
Callene albigularis, 78, 79. 

macclounii, 78, 79. 

calva brevicera, Treron, 116. 

granviki, Treron, 115. 

salvadorii, Vinago, 115. 

, Treron, 76. 

uellensis, Vinago, 115. 

, Vinago, 115. 

canescens, P achy coccyx validus, 104. 
caniceps, Lanius schach, 154. 
canorus bangsi, Cuculus, 89. 

, Cuculus canorus, 89. 

cantianus, Charadrius, 45. 

minutus, Charadrius, 44, 45. 

Capella gallinago delicata, 40, 160. 
capellanus, Corvus, 53, 



capense castaneum, Glaucidium, 

138. 
capensis dillonii, Bubo, 158. 

dodsoni, Burhinus, 19. 

, Ttyfo capensis, 157, 158. 

Caprimulgus, 52. 

— — europseus europseus, 41. 

nubicus tamaricis, 18. 

ruficollis desertorum, 41. 

Carduelis flammea ro strata, 52. 
Carine noctua somaliensis, 158. 
carolinus, Euphagus, 41. 
carteri, Hirundo tahitica, 27. 
caryocatactes, Nucifraga car y oca - 

tactes, 50. 
Cassowary, 118, 120. 
castaneum, Glaucidium capense, 

138. 
Casuarius casuarius altijugus, 121. 
grandis, subsp. nov., 



121. 



sclateri, 121. 

ftecH 121. 
keysseri, 121, 160. 
papuanus, 121. 
shawmayeri, 



subsp. 



nov., 120. 
casuarius altijugus, Casuarius, 121 

grandis, Casuarius, 121. 

sclateri, Casuarius, 121. 

Catriscus apicalis, 70. 

centralis, Bradypterus brachy- 

pterus, 43. 
Centropus burchellii, 90, 91, 92. 

■ fasciipygialis, 91. 

cupreicaudus, 116, 117. 

fasciipygialis, 90. 

fischeri, 116, 117. 

monachus, 90, 116, 117. 

angolensis, 117. 

cupreicaudus, 117. 

fischeri, 117. 

monachus, 117. 

occidentalis, 117. 

— — - senegalensis, 90, 91. 

fasciipygialis, 91. 

superciliosus, 90, 91, 92. 

— — burchellii, 91, 92. 

loandse, 91, 92. 

— sokotrse, 92. 
superciliosus, 92. 



Cercomela, 101. 

— ■ — familiar is, 100, 101. 

sennaarensis, 100. 

chadensis, Bradypterus brachy- 

pterus, 43. 
Chaffinch, 64. 

Charadrius alexandrinus, 44, 45. 
seebohmi, 45. 

d2 



Vol. lvii.l 



164 



Charadrius cantianus, 45. 

minutus, 44, 45. 

dubius curonicus, 45. 

■ forbesi, 87. 

■ — ■ — ■ hiaticula hiaticula, 123. 
tundrse, 123. 



Charadrius minutus, 45. 

Chat, 52. 

, White -throated Robin-, 74, 

78. 
Chiff chaff, 6, 51. 

, Iberian, 63, 64. 

Chlidonias leucoptera, 19. 
chlorigula, Arizelocichla, 11. 

schusteri, Arizelocichla, 11. 

C Moris, 52. 

Chloropetella holochlorus, 12. 

suahelica, 12. 

chobiensis, Vinago schalowi, 77. 
Chordeiles minor minor, 41. 
chrysocercus, Merops persicus, 6, 

99. 
Ghrysococcyx, 151. 

cupreus, 151. 

klaasi, 151. 

— — arabicus, subsp. nov., 

150. 

klaasi, 150. 

chrysoptera, Helminthophila, 57. 
chrysopygia, (Enanthe, 100, 101. 
Chukor, 65, 66. 
Cichlornis whitneyi, 148. 
cinerascens, Bubo africanus, 158. 
cinerea, Apalis, 72. 

, cinerea, 72. 

funebris, Apalis, 12. 

cinereus kikuyuensis, Alseonax, 73. 
cinnamomeus, Acrocephalus bseti- 

catus, 9, 10. 
cirtensis, Corvus, 53. 
Cisticola, 32. 

citriniceps, Eremomela scotops, 112. 
clamosus, Turdoides melanops, 69. 
ccelebs, Fringilla ccelebs, 65. 

gengleri, Fringilla, 64, 65. 

scotica, Fringilla, 65. 

cognatus, Phyllastrephus fischeri, 

126, 127. 
Colaptes auratus, 56. 

cafer, 56. 

Colletoptera affinis galilejensis, 6. 

Colozus, 52. 

collybiia breh?nii, Phylloscopus, 63. 

ibericus, Phylloscopus, 64. 

, Phylloscopus, 6, 63, 64. 

, Phylloscopus collybita, 63, 

64, 160. 
Columba guinea, 22. 
guinea guinea, 23. 



Columba guinea phceonotus, 23. 

iriditorques, 15. 

comata, Hemiprocne comata, 151, 

152. 

major, Hemiprocne, 152. 

stresemanni, Hemiprocne, 

151. 
Condor, Californian, 97. 
congensis, Afropavo, 81, 84, 85, 

124. 

, Eremomela scotops, 111, 112. 

Coot, 6, 97. 

Coracina azurea, 15. 

Cormorant, 97. 

Corncrake, 51. 

comix, Corvus, 47, 52, 53, 56. 

minos, Corvus, 53. 

corone, Corvus, 47, 52, 53, 56. 
coronoides, Corvus, 56. 
Corvus, 52. 

albus, 52. 

capellanus, 53. 

cirtensis, 53. 

comix, 47, 52, 53, 56. 

minos, 53. 

corone, 47, 52, 53, 56. 

coronoides, 56. 

dauuricus, 53, 54, 55, 56. 

macrorhynchus, 56. 

minos, 53. 

monedida, 56. 

neglectus, 54. 

orientalis, 53. 

• — ■ — pallescens, 53. 

sardonius, 53. 

sharpii, 53. 

scemmeringii, 53. 

torquatus, 52. 

Cowbird, Shiny, 34. 

Crane, Crowned, 85. 

— , Sand-hill, 97. 

Crex, 157. 

cristata, Pseudotadorna, 124. 

cristatus brevis, Bycanistes, 137. 

Crow, 52, 53. 

, Black, 53. 

, Carrion, 52, 55, 57. 

— , Hooded, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57. 
Cuckoo, 134. 

, European, 89. 

, Lesser, 77, 78. 

cucullatus, Raphus, 155. 
Cuculus canorus bang si, 89. 

canorus, 89. 

poliocephalus poliocephalus, 

78. 

rochii, 77, 78. 

• stormsi, 77. 

cupreicaudus, Centropus, 116, 117. 



165 



[Vol. lvii. 



cupreicaudus, Centropus monachus, 

117. 
cupreus, Ghrysococcyx, 151. 
curonicus, Gharadrius dubius, 45. 
curruca ajfinis, Sylvia, 52. 
cyanostictus, Melittophagus, 128. 

, pusillus, 129. 

Cymodroma, 145. 
Cypriotes, Alectoris, 66. 
, grasca, 66. 



damarensis, Vinago schalowi var., 

77. 
damrnermani, Pericrocotus minia- 

tus, 152. 
daurica rufula, Hirundo, 7. 

scullii, Hirundo, 18. 

dauuricus, Corvus, 53, 54, 55, 56. 
davisse, Sterna nereis, 110, 111. 
deceptis, Fregetta leucogaster, 146. 
decipiens ambiguus, Streptopelia, 

103. 

elegans, Turtur, 103. 

griseiventris, Turtur, 103. 

permista, Streptopelia, 103. 

■ perspicillata, Streptopelia, 

103. 

shelleyi, Streptopelia, 103. 

, Streptopelia decipiens, 102, 

103. 

, Thripias namaquus, 10, 11. 

, Turtur, 102. 

deckeni, Lophoceros, 138. 
delalandi, Treron, 76. 
delalandii granti, Vinago, 87, 88. 

, Phalacrotreron, 88. 

, Fwia^o, 87, 88, 116. 

, ■ delalandii, 88. 

delicata, Capella gallinago, 40, 160. 
Delichon urbica ? meridionalis, 6. 
Dendropicos, 16, 17. 

abyssinicus, 17. 

elachus, 17. 

fuscescens, 17. 

■ gabonicus, 17. 

lafresnayi, 17. 

lugubris, 17. 

pcecilolsemus, 17. 

stierlingi, 17. 

Desertipicus, 15, 16. 

desertorum, Caprimulgus ruficollis, 

41. 
desnoyersi, Phasianus, 86. 
dillonii, Bubo capensis, 158. 
diluta, Napothera epilepidota, 152. 
Diomedea gilliana, 144. 

melanophris, 144. 

diomedea disputans, Pufflnus, 123. 



Dioptrornis, 73. 

fischeri, 72, 73, 74. 

amani, 73. 

fischeri, 73, 74. 

nyikensis, 74. 

semicinctus, 74. 

toruensis, 74. 

johnstoni, 73. 

kiwuensis, 74. 

nyikensis, 72, 74. 

semicinctus, 72. 

toruensis, 72. 

trothas, 74. 

Diplooticus, 98. 

disputans, Pujffinus diomedea, 123. 

Dodo, 155. 

dodsoni, Burhinus capensis, 19. 

Dotterel, 51. 

Dove, Turtle-, 19. 

dowashanus, Phyllastrephus, 125, 

127. 
Dowitcher, 36. 
drakensbergensis, Apalis thoracica, 

99. 
Dryobates, 16, 17. 

obsoletus, 17. 

dubius curonicus, Gharadrius, 45. 
Duck, 58, 87. 

■, Black, 96. 

, Buffle-headed, 97. 

, Canvas-back, 97. 

, Eider, 109. 

, Golden-eye, 97. 

, Harlequin, 97. 

, Ring-neck, 97. 

, Ruddy, 97. 

, Tufted, 6. 

, Wood, 96. 



elachus, Dendropicos, 17. 
Elanus leucurus, 97. 
elegans, Hiaticula, 45. 

, Turtur decipiens, 103. 

elgonensis, Francolinus shelleyi, 68. 

elliotii, Mesopicos, 17. 

Ember iza, 136. 

epilepidota amy as, Napothera, 153. 

diluta, Napothera, 152. 

mendeni, Napothera, 152. 

, Napothera epilepidota, 152. 

eremica, Calandrella blanfordi, 14. 

, Spizocorys, 14. 

Eremomela scotops angolensis, 
subsp. nov., 111. 

citriniceps, 112. 

congensis, 111, 112. 

■ mentalis, 111, 112. 

Eremophila alpestris bilopha, 17. 



Vol. lvii.] 



166 



ericclorum, Turdus ericetorum, 136. 
Erythrocercus holochlorus, 12. 
erythronotus, Lanius, 154. 
erythrophthalma, Anas, 157. 
erythropterus yunnanensis, Pteru- 

thius, 147. 
Erythrura, 67. 

trichroa, 67. 

viridifacies, sp. nov., 66. 

Euphagus carolinus, 41. 
europseus, Caprimulgus europseus, 

41. 
exsul, Sterna nereis, 110, 111. 



Falco naumanni naumanni, 6. 
familiaris, Cercomela, 100, 101. 

sennaarensis, Cercomela, 100. 

fasciipygialis, Centropus, 90. 

, burchellii, 91. 

, senegalensis, 91. 

felix, Saxicola torquata, 20, 21. 
ferina, Nyroca ferina, 6. 
fischeri amani, Dioptrornis, 73. 

, Centropus, 116, 117. 

— — , monachus, 117. 

cognatus, Phyllastrephus, 126, 

127. 
■ , Dioptrornis fischeri, 72, 73, 

74. 
— — keniensis, Phyllastrephus, 127. 
marsabit, Phyllastrephus, 126, 

127. 

nyikensis, Dioptrornis, 74. 

, Phyllastrephus fischeri, 125, 

126, 128. 
■ placidus, Phyllastrephus, 127, 

128. 
— — , Scotopelia fischeri, 159. 

, peli, 159. 

semicinctus, Dioptrornis, 14t. 

sucosus, Phyllastrephus, 127. 

sylvicullor, Phyllastrephus, 

127. 

• toruensis, Dioptrornis, 74. 

flammea rostrata, Carduelis, 52. 
flammeus, Strix, 157. 
flavicans bihe, Prinia, 7. 
— — , Prinia flavicans, 7. 
flavipes, Alseonax, 100. 

, Tringa, 37. 

flavirostris, Procellaria, 124. 

, Puffinus, 124. 

flaviscapis, Pteruthius, 147. 
flavitarsus, Alseonax, 100. 
fluviatilis, Locustella, 18. 
Flycatcher, Red-breasted, 51. 
jorbesi, Charadrius, 87. 
Francolin, 85. 



Francolinus jacksoni pollenorum, 

subsp. nov., 67. 

shelleyi elgonensis, 68. 

theresee, subsp. nov., 

68. 
F rater cula, 123. 
Fregata, 145. 
Fregetta, 145, 146. 

aquerea, 144. 

grallaria, 144, 145, 146, 147. 

leucogaster deceptis, 146. 

^fcm, 145, 147. 

tristanensis, 144. 

Fregettornis, 145. 

Fregodroma, gen. nov., 145, 146. 

grallaria, 145, 146. 

— ■ — leucothysanus, sp. nov., 146. 

torn, 145, 147. 

tropica, 145, 146. 

Fringilla ccelebs ccelebs, 65. 

gengleri, 64, 65. 

scotica, subsp. nov., 65. 

Fringillaria striolata striolata, 18. 

tahapisi arabica, 18. 

fuligiventer, Phylloscopus, 109, 110. 
fuligula, Nyroca, 6. 
fulvopectoralis, Strcptopelia, 103. 
funebris, Apalis cinerea, 72. 
fusca, Anas, 157. 
fuscescens, Dendropicos, 17. 



gabonicus, Dendropicos, 17. 
Gadwall, 97. 

galilejensis, Colletoptera ajfinis, 6. 
gallinago delicata, Capella, 40, 160. 
gambelli, Anser albifrons, 96. 
gengleri, Fringilla ccelebs, 64, 65. 
Geokichla piaggise kilimensis, 101. 

piaggise, 101. 

rowei, subsp. nov., 101. 

gilliana, Diomedea, 144. 
Glaucidium capense castaneum, 

138. 
glauerti, Alphapuffmus assimilis, 

24. 
goertse, Mesopicos, 17. 
goodfellowi, Pitta novseguinese, 136. 
Goose, Black Brent, 97. 

, Canada, 96. 

, Lesser Snow-, 96. 

, Ross's Snow-, 96. 

, Tule, 96. 

, White-fronted, 96. 

Goshawk, 47, 58, 59, 61. 

gracilis ? subsp., Prinia, 18. 

Grackle, 41. 

grseca, Alectoris, 65. 

— > — ■ Cypriotes, Alectoris, 66. 



167 



[Vol. lvii. 



grseca philbyi, Alectoris, 19. 

scotti, Alectoris, 65, 66. 

grallaria, Fregetta, 144, 145, 146, 

147. 

, Fregodroma, 145, 146. 

, Procellaria, 145. 

grandis, Casuarius casuarius, 121. 
granti, Vinago delalandii, 87, 88. 
granviki, Treron calva, 115. 
Grebe, 6, 97. 
Greenshank, 39. 
grisea, Scotocerca inquieta, 21. 
griseirostris, Melidectes, 42. 
griseiventris, Turtur decipiens, 103. 
griseocephalus kilimensis, Meso- 

picos, 12, 13, 14. 
■, Mesopicos griseocephalus, 12, 

13, 14, 17. 
ruwenzori, Mesopicos, 12, 13, 

14. 
griseus hendersoni, Limnodromus, 

36, 39, 40. 

, Limnodromus griseus, 36. 

, Puffinus, 143. 

grotei, Bessonomis, 79, 80. 

, macclounii, 80. 

Grouse, Ruffed, 96. 
Guillemot, 109. 

, Brunnich's, 62. 

Guinea-fowl, 124. 

guinea, Golumba guinea, 22, 23. 

phoeonotus, Columba, 23. 

Gull, 97. 

, Bonaparte's, 37. 

, Lesser Black- backed, 109. 



Hirundo daurica scullii, 18. 

javanica, 27, 160. 

tahitica, 27. 

carteri, 27. 

parsoni, subsp. nov., 27. 

neoxena, 26, 27. 

hirundo, Procellaria, 124. 
hispanica, (Enanthe, 98. 
holochlorus, Chloropetella, 12. 

, Erythrocercus, 12. 

Honey-eater, 42. 

Hornbill, 15. 

horni, Sterna nereis, 110. 

humboldtii, Pternistis afer, 44. 

hyper ythrus, Hypopicus, 16. 

hypochloris, Phyllastrephus, 126. 

Hypopicus hyperythrus, 16. 



ibericus, Phylloscopus collybita, 64. 
icterina, Phyllastrephus, 126. 
icteronotus, Rhamphoccelus, 57. 
indicator leucurus, Bsepogon, 15. 
indigenus, Troglodytes troglodytes, 

143. 
ingramsi, Pterocles lichtensteinii, 

142. 
inquieta buryi, Scotocerca, 21. 

grisea, Scotocerca, 21. 

intermedia, Alauda arvensis, 17. 
intermedins, Thripias namaquus, 

10, 11. 
interpres, Arenaria, 17. 
iriditorques, Columba, 15. 
, Turtur cena, 14, 15. 



hartlaubi, Turdoides leucopygia, 69. 
Hawk, Night-, 41. 
hecki, Casuarius, 121. 
Helminthophila, 57. 

chrysoptera, 57. 

■ lawrencei, 57. 

— ■ — leucobronchialis, 57. 

— ■ — • pinus, 57. 

Hemiprocne comata comata, 151, 

152. 

■ — major, 152. 

stresemanni, subsp. 

nov., 151. 
Hen, Mauritius, 155, 156. 
hendersoni, Limnodromus griseus, 

36, 39, 40. 
heudei, Paradoxornis, 22. 
Hiaticula elegans, 45. 
hiaticula, Cliaradrius hiaticula, 123. 

tundrse, Cliaradrius, 123. 

Hippolais caligata, 50. 
Hirundo daurica rufula, 7. 



Jackdaw, 52, 53, 54, 55. 

jacksoni, Calamoecetor, 12. 

, leptorhyncha, 71. 

pollenorum, Francolinus, 67. 

javanica, Hirundo, 27, 160. 
johnstoni, Dioptrornis, 73. 

, Mesopicos, 17. 

joiceyi, Melidectes belfordi, 42. 



keniensis, Phyllastrephus, 126. 

, fischeri, 127. 

Kestrel, Lesser, 6. 
keysseri, Casuarius, 121, 160. 
kikuyuensis, Alseonax cinereus, 73. 
kilimensis, Geokichla piaggise, 101. 

, Mesopicos griseocephalus, 12, 

13, 14. 
Kingfisher, 134. 
kingi, Petroica vittata, 28. 
kinneari, Melidectes J) elf or di, 42. 
Kite, White-tailed, 97. 



Vol. lvii.J 



168 



Kittiwake, 62, 109. 
kiwuensis, Dioptrornis, 74. 
klaasi arabicus, Chrysococcyx, 150. 

, Chrysococcyx klaasi, 150, 

151. 
kleini, Alectoris, 66. 
kuhlii, Puffmus, 123. 
Kuina, gen. nov., 156, 157. 
mundyi, sp. nov., 156. 



lafresnayi, Dendropicos, 17. 
lafresnayii, Melittophagus, 129. 

, variegatus, 130. 

, M crops, 130. 

Lampromorpha, 151. 
Lanius erythronotus, 154. 

schach bentet, 153, 154. 

— caniceps, 154. 

sumatrae, subsp. nc 



153, 154. 



tosariensis, 153, 154. 



senator senator, 6. 

lapponica, Limosa lapponica, 17. 
Lark, 17. 

, Horned, 17. 

, Sky-, 17. 

lawrencei, Helminthophila, 57. 
Leiopicus maharattensis, 16. 
leptorhyncha jacksoni, Calamozcetor, 

71. 

tsanse, Calamozcetor, 71. 

leptorhynchus, Puffmus, 143. 
leucobronchialis, Helminthophila> 

57. 
leucogaster deceptis, Fregetta, 146. 

, Thalassidroma, 144, 145, 146. 

leucoptera, Chlidonias, 19. 
leucopygia hartlaubi, Turdoides, 69. 
leucothysanus, Fregodroma, 146. 
leucurus, Bseopogon indicator, 15. 

, Elanus, 97. 

Iherminieri, Puffmus, 144. 
lichtensteinii ingramsi, Pterocles, 

142. 

, Pterocles lichtensteinii, 142. 

Limnodromus griseus griseus, 36. 

hendersoni, 36, 39, 40. 

Limosa lapponica lapponica, 17. 
loandse, Centropus super ciliosus, 

91, 92. 
Locustella fluviatilis, 18. 
Lophoceros deckeni, 138. 
Lophura, 85, 86. 
lugens, Streptopelia, 19. 
lugubris, Dendropicos, 17. 
Lullula arbor ea, 6. 
Luscinia megarhyncha mega- 

rhyncha, 6. ' 



macclounii, Alethe, 79. 

, Bessonornis, 79. 

, macclounii, 79, 80. 

— , Callene, 78, 79. 

grotei, Besonornis, 80. 

mbuluensis, Bessonornis, 80. 

njombe, Alethe, 79, 80. 

macrorhynchus, Corvus, 56. 

Magpie, 19, 20. 

, Moorish, 7. 

, Yellow-billed, 97. 

maharattensis, Leiopicus, 16. 

major, Hemiprocne comata, 152. 

Malimbus scutatus, 15. 

■marsabit, Phyllastrephus fischeri, 
126, 127. 

Marsh-Harrier, 109. 

Martin, House-, 6. 

, Sand-, 6. 

maura, Saxicola rubicola, 31. 

mauritanica, Pica pica, 7. 

, Riparia paludicola, 6. 

maxima, Micropus melba, 69, 160. 

mbuluensis, Bessonornis macclounii, 
80. 

medius, Phasianus, 86. 

7negarhyncha, Luscinia megarhyn- 
cha, 6. 

melanogaster, Pternistis afer, 44. 

melanoleuca, Tringa, 37, 38. 

melanophris, Diomedea, 144. 

melanops clamosus, Turdoides, 69. 

sharpei, Turdoides, 69. 

■ vepres, Turdoides, 69. 

melba africana, Micropus, 69, 160. 

maxima, Micropus, 69, 160. 

striatus, Micropus, 69. 

tuneti, Micropus, 6. 

Melidectes belfordi brassi, 42. 

joiceyi, 42. 

kinneari, subsp. nov., 

42. 

griseirostris, 42. 

Melittophagus bullockoides, 129. 

cyanostictus, 128. 

lafresnayii, 129. 

— ■ — oreobates, 129, 130. 

pusillus cyanostictus, 129. 

■ sharpei, 128. 

variegatus, 129. 

bangweoloensis, 129, 130. 

lafresnayii, 130. 

■ variegatus, 129. 

mendeni, Napothera epilepidota, 
152. 

mentalis, Eremomela scotops, 111, 
112. 

Merganser, 97. 

? meridionalis, Delichon urbica, 6. 



169 



[Vol. lvii. 



Merops apiaster, 6. 
— — ■ lafresnayii, 130. 

persicus chrysocercus, 6, 99. 

variegatus, 129. 

merula, Turdus merula, 134. 
Mesopicos, 16, 17. 

■ elliotii, 17. 

goertse, 17. 

griseocephalus griseocephalus, 

12, 13, 14, 17. 

kilimensis, 12, 13, 14. 

ruwenzori, 12, 13, 14. 

johnstoni, 17. 

Metopiana, 157. 
metopias, Artisornis, 105. 

bensoni, Artisornis, 114. 

Micropus melba africana, 69, 160. 

— ■ — ■ maxima, 69, 160. 

■ striatus, subsp. nov., 69. 

tuneti, 6. 

miniatus dammermani, Pericro- 

cotus, 152. 

, Pericrocotus miniatus, 152. 

minor, Acrocephalus bseticatus, 9. 

, Chordeiles minor, 41. 

minos, Corvus comix, 53. 
minutus, Charadrius cantianus, 44, 

45. 
Miophasianus, 86. 
modularis, Prunella, 98. 
Molothrus bonariensis bonariensis, 

34. 
monachus angolensis, Gentropus, 

117. 
, Gentropus monachus, 90, 116, 

117. 

cupreicaudus, Gentropus, 117. 

fischeri, Gentropus, 117. 

occidentalis, Gentropus, 117. 

monedula, Corvus, 56. 

Motacilla alba, 6. 

mundyi, Kuina, 156. 

munzneri, Phyllastrephus, 127, 128. 

, placidus, 125, 127, 128. 

murina, Apalis murina, 101. 

, ■ thoracica, 8. 

bensoni, Apalis, 101, 114. 

rhodesise, Apalis, 102. 

whitei, Apalis, 114. 

youngi, Apalis, 101. 

muttui, Alseonax, 100. 



namaquus angolensis, Thripias, 10. 

decipiens, Thripias, 10, 11. 

intermedius, Thripias, 10, 11. 

schoensis, Thripias, 10, 11. 

semischoensis, Thripias, 11. 



namaquus, Thripias namaquus, 10, 
11, 17. 

— - — turkanse, Thripias, 10, 11. 
Napothera epilepidota amyse, 153. 

diluta, 152. 

■ — ■ epilepidota, 152. 

— - — mendeni, subsp. nov., 

152. 
naumanni, Falco naumanni, 6. 
nebularia, Tringa, 39. 
neglecta, Pterodroma, 25. 
neglectus, Corvus, 54. 
Neophron percnopterus percno- 

pterus, 7. 
neoxena, Hirundo tahitica, 26, 27. 
nereis davisse, Sterna, 110, 111. 

e;zswZ, Sterna, 110, 111. 

horni, Sterna, 110. 

— — , Sterna nereis, 110. 

iVe«a, 157. 

Nightjar, 109. 

— — •, American, 41. 

nigricans, Petrochelidon, 26. 

niveifrons, Mgialitis, 45. 

njombe, Alethe macclouniei, 79, 80. 

noctua somaliensis, Carine, 158. 

novseguinese goodfellowi, Pitta, 136. 

— — -, PiWa novseguinese, 136. 

nubicus tamaricis, Caprimulgus, 18. 

Nucifraga caryocatactes car y oca - 

tactes, 50. 
nudirostris, Treron, 76. 
nuerensis, Calamoecetor, 71, 72. 
Nutcracker, Thick-billed, 50. 
Nuthatch, 109. 
nyikensis, Dioptrornis, 72. 

, fischeri, 74. 

nyong, Acrocephalus bseticatus, 9, 

10. 
Nyroca, 157. 

ferina ferina, 6. 

fuligula, 6. 



obsoletus, Dryobates, 17. 
occidentalis, Gentropus monachus, 

117. 
(Enanthe, 52, 101. 

chrysopygia, 100, 101. 

hispanica, 98. 

Onychognathus tenuirostris ray- 

mondi, subsp. nov., 68. 
— theresse, subsp. nov., 

68. 
oreobates, Melittophagus, 129, 130. 
orientalis, Corvus, 53. 

, Vinago, 87. 

Ornithaptera solitaria, 141. 
Ortolan, 51. 



Vol. lvii.] 



170 



Otus pembaensis, sp. nov., 112. 

rutilus, 112, 113. 

scops scops, 19. 

senegalensis, 19. 

pamelae, subsp. nov., 

150. 

senegalensis, 150. 

Owl, Little, 32. 

— , Pel's Fishing-, 158. 

, Scops, 19, 112. 

Oyster- catcher, 109. 

Pachy 'coccyx validus, 104. 

canescens, 104. 

scens, Corvus, 53. 

Poicephalus rufiventris, 

47. 
paludicola rnauritanica, Riparia, 6. 
palustris, Acrocephalus, 98. 
pamelse, Otus senegalensis, 150. 
papuanus, Gasuarius, 121. 

* shawmayeri, Casuarius, 120. 

Paradise, Bird of, 134. 
Paradoxornis heudei, 22. 
Parisoma buryi, 18. 
Parrot, 134. 

parsoni, Hirundo tahitica, 27. 
Partridge, 85, 98. 
passerinii, Rhamphoccelus, 57. 
Peacock, Asiatic, 124. 

, Congo, 85. 

Pea-fowl, 124. 

pelagica, Procellaria, 124. 

Pelican, 97. 

peli fischeri, Scotopelia, 159. 

salvago-raggii, Scotopelia, 

159. 

, Scotopelia, 158, 159. 

pelzelni, Aplonis, 149. 
pembaensis, Otus, 112. 
percnopterus, Neophron percno- 

pterus, 7. 
Pericrocotus miniatus dammer- 

mani, subsp. nov., 152. 

miniatus, 152. 

permista, Streptopelia decipiens, 

103. 
permistus, Turtur ambiguus, 103. 
persicus chrysocercus, Merops, 6, 

99. 
jjerspicillata, Streptopelia decipiens, 

103. 

, Turtur, 103. 

Petrel, Kermadec, 24. 

, Little-blue, 24. 

, Storm-, 124, 144. 

Petrochelidon nigricans, 26. 
Petroica vittata, 27, 28. 
kingi, 28. 



Phalacrotreron delalandii, 88. 
Phalarope, Northern, 62. 
Phasianus altus, 86. 

desnoyersi, 86. 

medius, 86. 

philbyi, Alectoris grseca, 19. 

, Calandrella blanjordi, 14. 

Philomachus pugnax, 40. 
Phcenicurus phcenicurus phceni- 

curus, 6. 
Phceoaythia, gen. nov., 157. 
Phoeonetta, 157. 

phozonotus, Columba guinea, 23. 
Phyllastrephus cabanisi, 126. 

dowashanus, 125, 127. 

fischeri, 125, 126. 

cognatus, 126, 127. 

fischeri, 126, 128. 

■ keniensis, 127. 

marsabit, 126, 127. 

— placidus, 127, 128. 

sucosus, 127. 

sylvicultor, 127. 

— — hypochloris, 126. 

icterina, 126. 

keniensis, 126. 

munzneri, 127, 128. 

placidus, 126. 

munzneri, 125, 127, 128. 

— ■ — sokokensis, 125, 126. 

sucosus, 126. 

sylvicultor, 126. 

Phyllopneuste brehmii, 63. 

■ rufus, 63. 

Phylloscopus, 109, 110. 

collybita, 6, 63, 64. 

— brehmii, 63. 

— collybita, 63, 64, 160. 

ibericus, subsp. nov., 

64. 

fuligiventer, 109, 110. 

— tibetanus, sp. nov., 109. 

trochilus, 63. 

weigoldi, 109, 110. 

piaggise, Geokichla piaggise, 101. 
• — • — kilimensis, Geokichla, 101. 

rowei, Geokichla, 101. 

£>tca asirensis, Pica, 19. 

— - — ■ rnauritanica, Pica, 7. 

Pica pica asirensis, subsp. nov., 

19. 

rnauritanica, 7. 

Pigeon, 134. 

, Fruit, 88. 

— , Speckled, 23. 
Pintail, 97. 

pinus, Helminthophila, 57. 
Pipit, Meadow-, 51. 
, Rock-, 51. 



171 



[Vol. Ivii. 



Pitta, 136. 

— — novaeguineee goodfeilowi, 

subsp. nov., 136. 

novseguinese, 136. 

placidus miXnzneri, Phyllastrephus, 

125, 127, 128. 

, Phyllastrephus, 126. 

, fischeri, 127, 128. 

Plover, Kentish, 44, 46. 

, Ringed, 121. 

Pochard, 6, 106. 
Podiceps ruficollis ruficollis, 6. 
pozcilolsemus, Dendropicos, 17. 
Poicephalus rufiventris pallidus, 47. 
poliocephalus, Cuculus polioce- 

phalus, 78. 

rochii, Cuculus, 77, 78. 

pollenorum, Francolinus jacksoni, 

67. 
porotoensis, Bessonornis albigularis, 

79. 
Prinia flavicans bihe, subsp. nov., 

7. 

flavicans, 7. 

gracilis, ? subsp., 18. 

Procellaria flavirostris, 124. 

grallaria, 145. 

hirundo, 124. 

■ pelagica, 124. 

Prunella, 98. 

modular is, 98. 

Pseudacanthis yenienensis, 18. 
Pseudotadorna cristata, 124. 
Pternistis afer, 43. 

humbodtii, 44. 

■ melanogasier, 44. 

Pteroeles lichtensteinii ingramsi, 

subsp. nov., 142. 

lichtensteinii, 142. 

Pterodroma arminjoniana, 25. 

neglecta, 25. 

Pteruthius seralatus, 147. 

erythropterus yunnanensis, 

subsp. nov., 147. 

flaviscapis, 147. 

ricketti, 147. 

yunnanensis, 147. 

Puffin, 109. 

, Common, 124. 

Puffinus, 123, 124. 

diomedea disputans, subsp. 

nov., 123. 

124. 
griseus, 143. 
- kuhli, 123. 
— — leptorhynchus, sp. nov., 143. 

Iherminieri, 144. 

• vulgaris, 124. 

pugnax, Philomachus, 40. 



pusillus cyanostictus, Melitto- 

phagus, 129. 
pyrrhogaster, Thripias, 17. 



Quail, 85. 



Rail, Mundy's Yellow, 154. 

, Water-, 106, 109. 

Raphus cucullatus, 155. 

Raven, 7, 52. 

raymondi, Onychognathus tenui- 

rostris, 68. 
Redpoll, Greenland, 52. 
Redshank, 39, 121, 122, 133. 
Redstart, 6. 
Reed- Warbler, 9, 51. 
Reeve, 40. 
Rhamphoccelus, 57. 

icteronotus, 57. 

passerinii, 57. 

rhodesise, Apalis murina, 102. 

ricketti, Pteruthius, 147. 

Riparia paludicola mauritanica, 6. 

■ riparia riparia, 6. 

Robin, 51. 

, American, 36. 

robusta, Tringa totanus, 121, 122. 
rochii, Cuculus poliocephalus, 11, 

78. 
Rook, 52. 

rostrata, Carduelis flammea, 52. 
rowei, Geokichla piaggise, 101. 
rubicola maura, iSaxicola, 31. 

, Saxicola torquata, 20, 21. 

ruficollis desertorum, Caprimulgus, 

41. 

, Podiceps ruficollis, 6. 

rufipennis, Aplonis, 149. 
rufiventris pallidus, Poicephalus, 

47. 
rufula, Hirundo daurica, 7. 
rufus, Phyllopneuste, 63. 
rutilus, Otus, 112, 113. 
ruwenzori, Mesopicos griseoce- 

phalus, 12, 13, 14. 



salvadorii, Vinago auslralis, 115, 
116. 

calva, 115. 

salvago-raggii, Scotopelia, 158. 

, Scotopelia peli, 159. 

Sandpiper, Solitary, 36, 40, 41. 

, Wood-, 51. 

santovestris, Aplonis, 148, 149. 
sardonius, Corvus, 53. 
saxatilis, Alectoris, 65. 



Vol. lvii.] 



172 



Saxicola rubicola maura, 21. 

sennaarensis, 100, 101. 

torquata, 18. 

— felix, subsp. no v., 20, 



21. 



rubicola, 20, 21. 



Scaup, Lesser, 96, 97. 

schach bentet, Lanius, 153, 154. 

caniceps, Lanius, 154. 

sumatrse, Lanius, 153, 154. 

tosariensis, Lanius, 153, 154. 

schalowi chobiensis, Vinago, 77. 

, Treron, 74, 75, 76, 77. 

schalowi, 76. 

— — , wakefieldii, 77. 

var. damarensis, Vinago, 77. 

Schosnicola brevirostris, 70. 

— — alexinse, 71. 

brevirostris, 70. 

brunneiceps, 70, 71. 

schoznobsenus, Acrocephalus, 18. 
schoensis, Thripias namaquus, 10, 

11. 
schusteri, Arizelocichla, 11. 

— ■ — ■ chlorigula, 1 1 . 

sclateri, Casuarius casuarius, 121. 
scops, Otus scops, 19. 
Scoter, American Velvet, 97. 

, Black, 97. 

, Surf, 97. 

scotica, Fringilla coelebs, 65. 
Scotocerca inquieta buryi, 21. 

grisea, subsp. nov., 21. 

Scotopelia fischeri fischeri, 159. 

peli, 158, 159. 

fischeri, 159. 

■ salvago-raggii, 159. 

salvago-raggii, 158. 

scotops angolensis, Eremomela, 111. 

citriniceps, Eremomela, 112. 

congensis, Eremomela, 111, 

112. 
mentalis, Eremomela, 111, 

112. 
scotti, Alectoris grseca, 65, 66. 
scullii, Hirundo daurica, 18. 
scutatus, Malimbus, 15. 
seebohmi, Charadrius alexandri- 

nus, 45. 
semicinctus, Dioptrornis, 72. 

, fischeri, 14:. 

semischoensis, Thripias namaquus, 

11. 
senator, Lanius senator, 6. 

lensis, Centropus, 90, 91. 
fasciipygialis, Centropus, 91. 
, Oft/s, 19. 

, senegalensis, 150. 

pamelse, Otus, 150. 



sennaarensis, Cercomela familiaris, 

100. 

, Saxicola, 100, 101. 

Shag, 109. 

sharpei, Turdoides melanops, 69. 

, Melittophagus, 128. 

sharpii, Corvus, 53. 

shawmayeri, Casuarius papuanus, 

120. 
Shearwater, 123. 

, Manx, 144. 

— , Slender-billed, 143. 

shelleyi elgonensis, Francolinus, 68. 

• — — , Streptopelia decipiens, 103. 

theresse, Francolinus, 68. 

, Turtur, 103. 

Shoveler, 97. 

Shrike, Red-backed, 51. 

, Woodchat-, 6. 

sinensis, Sterna albifrons, 110, 111. 

Sky-Lark, 17. 

Snipe, Red-breasted, 36, 41. 

, Wilson's, 40. 

scemmeringii, Corvus, 53. 
sokokensis, Phyllastrephus, 125, 

126. 
sokotree, Centropus super ciliosus, 

92. 
Solitaire, 141. 
solitaria, Omithaptera, 141. 

, Tringa, 36. 

, solitaria, 40. 

somaliensis, Carine noctua, 158. 
sordidus arabicus, Anthus, 18. 
Sparrow-Hawk, 60, 61, 62, 106, 

109. 

, Levant, 125. 

Sparrow, House-, 51. 
Sphenoeacus alexinse, 70. 
Sphyrapicus, 16. 
Spizocorys eremica, 14. 
Sterna albifrons, 110, 111. 

sinensis, 110, 111. 

■ — • — nereis, 110. 

davisee, 110, 111. 

exsul, 110, 111. 

■ — • — — — horni, 110. 
nereis, 110. 



stierlingi, Dendropicos, 17. 
stormsi, Cuculus, 77. 
strausse, Apalis bamendse, 105. 
Streptopelia decipiens 
103. 

decipiens, 102, 103 

permista, 103. 

perspicillata, 103. 

103. 



fulvopectoralis, 103. 
lug ens, 19. 



173 



[Vol. lvii. 



stresemanni, Hemiprocne comata, 

151. 
striatus, Micropus melba, 69. 
striolata, Fringillaria striolata, 18. 
Striae affinis, 157. 

flammeus, 157. 

woodfordii woodfordii, 138. 

suahelica, Chloropetella, 12. 
? subsp., Prinia gracilis, 18. 
sucosus, Phyllastrephus, 126. 

, — — fischeri, 127 '. 

sumatraz, Lanius schach, 153, 154. 
superciliosus burchellii, Centropus, 

91, 92. 

, Centropus, 90, 91, 92. 

, superciliosus, 92. 

loandse, Centropus, 91, 92. 

sokotrse, Centropus, 92. 

Swallow, 32. 

, Red-rumped, 7. 

Swan, Whistling, 97. 
Swift, Alpine, 6, 70. 

, Little, 6. 

Sylvia atricapilla, 6. 

atricapilla, 135. 

■ curruca affinis, 52. 

sylvicultor, Phyllastrephus, 126. 
, fischeri, 127. 



tahapisi arabica, Fringillaria, 18. 
tahitica carter i, Hirundo, 27. 

, Hirundo, 27. 

neoxena, Hirundo, 26, 27. 

■ parsoni, Hirundo, 27. 

tamaricis, Caprimulgus nubicus, 18. 
Teal, Blue-winged, 96. 

, Green-winged, 96, 97. 

tenebrosus, Turdoides, 69. 
tenuirostris raymondi, Onycho- 

gnathus, 68. 

theresse, Onychognathus, 68. 

Tern, Common, 109. 

, Little, 109. 

, White -winged Black, 19. 

Thalassidroma leucogaster, 144, 

145, 146. 

tropica, 145. 

theresse, Francolinus shelleyi, 68. 
, Onychognathus tenuirostris, 

68. 
thoracica alticola, Apalis, 99. 

drakensbergensis, Apalis, 99. 

murina, Apalis, 8. 

youngi, Apalis, 8. 

Thripias, 17. 

namaquus, 10, 17. 

angolensis, 10. 

decipiens, 10, 11, 



Thripias namaquus intermedius, 

10, 11. 

namaquus, 10, 11. 

schoensis, 10, 11. 

■ semischoensis, 11. 

turkanse, 10, 11. 

pyrrhogaster, 17. 

xantholophus, 17. 

Thrush, British Song, 136. 
tibetanus, Phylloscopus, 109. 
Tit, Bearded, 109. 
titan, Fregetta, 145, 147. 

, Fregodroma, 145, 147. 

toroensis, Zoster ops, 137, 159. 
torquata felix, Saxicola, 20, 21. 

rubicola, Saxicola, 20, 21. 

, Saxicola, 18. 

torquatus, Corvus, 52. 
toruensis, Dioptrornis, 72. 

•, fischeri, 14. 

to sariensis, Lanius schach, 153, 154. 
totanus britannica, Tringa, 122. 

robusta, Tringa, 121, 122. 

, Tringa totanus, 39, 121, 122, 

123. 
Treron calva, 76. 

brevicera, 116. 

granviki, 115. 

delalandi, 76. 

■ nudirostris, 76. 

schalowi, 74, 75, 76, 77. 

— — ■ wakefieldii schalowi, 77. 
77. 



trichroa, Erythrura, 67. 
Tringa flavipes, 37. 
— — melanoleuca, 37, 38. 
— — nebularia, 39. 

solitaria, 36. 

solitaria, 40. 

— — totanus britannica, 122. 

robusta, 121, 122. 

totanus, 39, 121, 



122, 



123. 

tristanensis, Fregetta, 144. 
trochilus, Phylloscopus, 63. 
Troglodytes troglodytes indigenus, 

subsp. nov., 143. 

troglodytes, 143. 

troglodytes indigenus, Troglodytes, 

143. 

, Troglodytes troglodytes, 143. 

tropica, Fregodroma, 145, 146. 

, Thalassidroma, 145. 

Tropicranus albocristatus, 15. 

trothse, Dioptrornis, 74. 

tsanse, Calamozcetor leptorhyncha, 

71. 
tundras, Charadrius hiaticula, 123. 
tuneti, Micropus melba, 6. 



Vol. lvii.] 



174 



tunny i, Alphapuffinus 

24. 
Turdoides leucopygia hartlaubi, 69. 

melanops clamosus, 69. 

sharpei, 69. 

vepres, subsp. nov., 69. 

tenebrosus, 69. 

Turdus ericetorum ericetorum, 136. 

merula merula, 134. 

turkanse, Thripias namaquus, 10, 

11. 
Turnstone, Black, 97. 
Turtur ambiguus, 103. 

— permistus, 103. 

decipiens, 102. 

— elegans, 103. 
griseiventris, 103. 



perspicillata, 103. 

shelleyi, 103. 

Turtur oena iriditorques, 14, 15. 

Tyto alba affmis, 157. 

capensis capensis, 157, 158. 



uellensis, Vinago australis, 115. 

•, calva, 115. 

urbica ? meridionalis, Delichon, 6. 



validus canescens, Pachy coccyx, 104. 

■, Pachy coccyx, 104. 

variegatus bangweoloensis, Melitto- 

phagus, 129, 130. 
lafresnayii, Melittophagus, 

130. 
, Melittophagus variegatus, 

129. 

, Merops, 129. 

vepres, Turdoides melanops, 69. 
Vinago australis, 115. 

brevicera, 116. 

salvadorii, 115, 116. 

uellensis, 115. 

cafea, 115. 

salvadorii, 115. 

uellensis, 115. 



— delalandii, 87, 88, 116. 

granti, 87, 88. 

— . — orientalis, 87. 

schalowi chobiensis, 77. 

var. damarensis, 77. 

-wakefieldii, 74, 87, 88, 116. 

viridifacies, Erythrura, 66. 
vittata bassi, Amaurodryas, 28. 
kingi, Petroica, 28. 



vittata, Petroica, 27, 28. 
vulgaris, Puffinis, 124. 
Vulture, 7. 

Wagtail, Grey-headed, 51. 

, Pied, 28. 

, White, 6. 

wakefieldii schalowi, Treron, 77. 

, Treron wakefieldii, 77. 

, Vinago, 74, 87, 88, 116. 

Warbler, Barred, 51. 

■, Booted, 50. 

, Fan-tailed, 70. 

— , Forest-, 72. 

, Garden-, 51. 

•, Marsh-, 98. 

■, Reed-, 9, 51. 

, River-, 18. 

— , Swamp-, 43, 71. 

, Wood-, 57. 

, Yellow-browed, 51. 

Wax wing, 36. 

weigoldi, Phylloscopus, 109, 110. 
whitei, Apalis murina, 114. 
Whitethroat, 51. 

, Siberian Lesser, 51, 52. 

whitney i, Gichlornis, 148. 
Wigeon, 96, 97. 
Woodcock, 32. 

, American, 96. 

woodfordii, Strix woodfordii, 138. 
Woodlark, 6. 

Woodpecker, 14, 15, 16, 17, 56. 
— — , Greater Spotted, 109. 
Wren, 142, 143. 

, Willow-, 51. 

Wryneck, 51. 

xantholophus, Thripias, 17. 
Xenopicus, 16. 

Yellowlegs, Greater, 38. 
Yellowshank, Greater, 37, 38, 41, 

, Lesser, 37. 

yemenensis, Pseudacanthis, 18. 
youngi, Apalis murina, 101. 

, thoracica, 8. 

Yungipicus, 16. 
yunnanensis, Pteruthius, 147. 

, Pteruthius erythropterus, 

147. 



Zosterops toroensis, 137, 159. 



PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, LTD., RED LION COURT, FLEET ST., E.C. 

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